The Bible in Its Traditions

James 5:10–16

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10  My brothers, take the prophets, who spoke in the name of YHWH, as an example of evil suffering and of longsuffering.

10  Take, brethren, for an example of suffering and of patience, the prophets who spake in the name of the Lord.

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11  Indeed we count those blessed who endure. You have heard of the patience of Job, and you saw the end of YHWH-that He is compassionate and He is merciful.

11  Behold, we call them blessed that endured: ye have heard of the patience of Job, and have seen the end of the Lord, how that the Lord is full of pity, and merciful.

11  Consider that we beatify those who have endured. You have heard of the patient suffering of Job. And you have seen the end of the Lord, that the Lord is merciful and compassionate.

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12  But above all, my brothers, do not swear, neither by heaven nor the earth, nor any other oath. But let your "Yes"be "Yes,"and [your] "No,""No,"so that you may not fall into hypocrisy.

12  But above all things, my brethren, swear not, neither by the heaven, nor by the earth, nor by any other oath: but let your yea be yea, and your nay, nay; that ye fall not under judgment.

12  But before all things, my brothers, do not choose to swear, neither by heaven, nor by the earth, nor in any other oath. But let your word ‘Yes’ be yes, and your word ‘No’ be no, so that you may not fall under judgment.

12d let your “yes” be yes Mt 5:37; 2Cor 1:17-18 12b do not swear Mt 5:34
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13 Is anyone among you suffering

Vsad? He should pray.

Is anyone in good spirits? He should sing a song of praise.

14 Is anyone among you sick?

He should summon

Vbring in the presbyters of the church, and they should pray over him,

anointing him with oil in the name of the

Sour Lord.

15 And the prayer of faith will save

Sheal the sick person,

and the

Sour Lord will raise him up.

And if has committed any sins, it

V Sthey will be forgiven him.

16 Confess, V S Nesthen, Vyour sins to one another

and pray for one another so that you may be healed.

Powerful indeed is the effective

Vpersistent prayer of a righteous person.

Context

Biblical Intertextuality

10a patience fruit of the Spirit Paul lists patience (makrothumia) as one of the fruits of the Spirit (Gal 5:22).

Text

Textual Criticism

11b see : Byz | TR Nes: you saw

  • A and the second corrector of B read the imperative "See!" (idete);
  • Nes follows the witnesses which read the indicative aorist "you saw" (eidete). 

Literary Devices

3:4f,5:4,7,9,11 Look Call for Attention James uses the verb idou (V = ecce) several times throughout the work to call special attention to what follows.

Reception

Christian Tradition

7–12 Divisio Textus In Ps.-Andreas Catena the heading for this section is, "Concerning patience (makrothumia) and perseverance (hupomonê) during suffering, and concerning the truth" (Cramer 1844, 8:34).

10b the prophets Identity of the Prophets Bede understands the "prophets" in a broad sense, from Noah to the apostle James, son of Zebedee. These men offer several different types of examples:

  • Bede Ep. cath.: Bede understands "the result of evil" (exitus mali) to refer to the martyrdom of some prophets: Zecharaiah, Uriah, the Maccabees, and John the Baptist, Stephen, and James the son of Zebedee in the New Testament. These men even bore death patiently and did not complain (Comparison of Versions 5:10a).
  • Bede Ep. cath.: Others give examples of patiently enduring labors: Noah builds his ark over a hundred year span (!), Moses leads the people for 40 years in the wilderness, David endures exile, and Joseph endures slavery (Hurst 1985, 59; Hurst 1983, 219-20).

Islam

11c compassionate is he and merciful God’s Merciful Nature A standard characterization of God in the Qur'an is "most gracious, most merciful" (Arabic: rahman and rahim); the phrase opens every chapter (sura) in the Qur'an with the exception of one. See also Vocabulary 5:11c and Biblical Intertextuality 5:11c.

Text

Grammar

11b the end of the Lord Genitive of Agency In the immediate context, the phrase to telos Kuriou is most likely a type of genitive of origin or source: the final result caused by the Lord.

Literary Devices

12e fall under judgment Echo James again sounds the theme of judgment. Humans have no right to judge others: judgment is a divine prerogative (e.g., Jas 2:12-13; 4:11-12; 5:9).

Context

Ancient Cultures

12c oath Importance of Oaths in Greco-Roman Society Swearing an oath was an essential practice of the ancient Mediterranean world. An oath is a solemn statement, claim or promise that invokes the gods as witnesses to its truth. The implicit or explicit expectation is that the gods will punish the speaker for perjury. The oath's intention, then, is to guarantee the speaker's words.  

Oaths were a regular part of legal and political procedures. In political contexts, one took an oath of office; members of political alliances took oaths to not harm one another. Parties in legal disputes took oaths to abide by the settlement. Representatives of a city took oaths of loyalty to a new ruler. Oaths were also common in more informal contexts involving business or friendships. 

Oaths were sworn to the relevant deities. Thus the Hippocratic oath was sworn to all the gods and goddesses, but especially to those concerned with medicine: Apollo the Physician, Asclepius, Hygieia, and Panacea as witnesses.  In Euripides Med. 731-47, Medea asks King Aegeus for asylum, and also asks that he swear an oath as a guarantee (pistis) of his promise. After some persuasion, he asks Medea by which gods he should swear; she names the Earth, the Sun, and the other gods. The supreme oath is said to be one taken by the river Styx, e.g., Homer Il. 15.38. Finally, Socrates often swears "by the dog" or "by the dog of Egypt," possibly referring to the Egyptian dog-headed god Anubis.

Reception

Comparison of Versions

12d let your “yes” be yes Versions of Jesus’ Sayings S, C and others in the Latin tradition (e.g., Ps.-Hilary of Arles Tract. Iac. ad loc.) and the Bohairic Coptic, following the reading witnessed in א, add "word" to the verse, resulting in the reading, "Let your word be 'yes, yes' and 'no, no'" (Textual Criticism 5:12d). The addition is presumbably influenced by the version of Jesus' saying in Mt 5:37.

Christian Tradition

12b do not swear Divine Pedagogy

  • Ps.-Oecumenius Comm. Ep. Cath. wonders how the old law can praise a person for swearing an oath to God (e.g., Dt 6:13), when the new law forbids oaths? Ps.-Oecumenius attributes it to the divine pedagogy: just as God allowed the Jewish people to offer sacrifices to him in order to wean them away from sacrifices to idols, so too he allowed them to swear in his name to lead them away from the habit of swearing in the name of idols (col. 505).

Suggestions for Reading

13–18 The passage focuses on prayer (Literary Devices 5:13-18). After warning the reader that he must ask God in faith, not doubting (Jas 1:5–8) and that he must not ask wrongly (Jas 4:2–3), James here gives examples of proper, effective prayer.

The passage also relates to James' concern with proper speech: after giving many admonitions against improper speech (e.g., Jas 5:9; 5:12), James here gives example of the proper use of speech in praying and singing. See also →James: Speech in James.

The passage presents a holistic view of illness and healing: here, these two elements are closely associated: physical illness and “spiritual illness” (sin) on the one hand, and physical healing and forgiveness of sin, on the other, are closely linked. There is also a strong link between understanding the anointing ritual as providing healing (both spiritual and physical) in this life, and understanding the anointing and prayer as preparation for ultimate healing in the resurrection and eternal life. This holistic emphasis reflects the theme of wholeness and integrity found throughout the letter. See further →James: Perfection / Wholeness in James.

Catholic tradition has drawn out the meaning of Jas 5:14-15 in various ways, primarily through the development of the teaching on the sacrament of the anointing of the sick. The tradition has at various times emphasized the different aspects of James’ integral vision: spiritual healing (Origen, Chrysostom, Council of Trent), physical healing (an early tradition of anointing among the laity, Vatican II’s emphasis on a broader understanding of healing), and the eschatological dimension (the traditional emphasis on “extreme unction” as preparation for eternal life). See also Christian Tradition 5:14-15 and Theology 5:14-15.

This section, and the letter, ends with James' exhortation to community members to turn back a straying fellow-believer (Jas 5:19-20). James thus reinterates his characteristic concern for harmony within the community. The history of interpretation generally interpreted the ambiguous passage to mean that a person who converted another from sin would in turn receive pardon of his own sins; this took its place in a traditional list of ways in which one could seek pardon for sins. See also Christian Tradition 5:19-20.

Text

Literary Devices

13f Rhetorical Question James frequently uses questions, and here the rapid series of three questions and responses gives the flavor of an oral give-and-take (cf. Jas 3:13 for the same construction; see also Grammar 5:13-14).

Textual Criticism

14c anointing Variants B om. "him" after "anointing"; B. om. “of the Lord”.

Vocabulary

14c anointing Related Terms The verb for anointing with oil (aleiphô) is commonly used for physical healing (Mk 6:13) or as a sign of good health (Mk 6:17) in contrast with chriô, the usual Greek term for the ritual anointing of the kings or the prophets in the OT. See also Ancient Texts 5:14c and  Biblical Intertextuality 5:14c.

Grammar

14b over him An Unusual Preposition The use of the preposition epi (ep' auton) with pray (proseuchomai) is unusual. It may have the sense of the presbyters standing over a sick person who is lying down, or it may allude to the sense of invoking God's name over the person (cf. Jas 2:7). It may also allude to the sense of laying hands on the sick person during prayer;

  • Origen Hom. Lev. 2.4.5 translates "and they will place their hands on him" (imponant ei manus) instead of "they should pray over him."

14c in the name of the Lord Instrumental or Circumstantial? The relationship of this phrase to the action of anointing may be understood as:

  • attendant circumstances: anointing while invoking the Lord’s name (cf. Jn 14:13-14; Eph 5:20);
  • in an instrumental sense, anointing by the power and authority ("name") of the Lord  (cf. Mt 7:22; Acts 4:10).

See also Christian Tradition 5:14c.

Context

Ancient Texts

14c–15 anointing  + save: Link between Anointing and Eschatological Salvation Two passages from the Iliad echo James’ allusions to eschatological salvation:

  • Homer Il. 16.677–680 “Immediately then he [Apollo] lifted up noble Sarpedon out of the range of the missiles, and carrying him far away, bathed him in the streams of the river, and anointed him with ambrosia (chrisen t' ambrosiêᵢ), and clothed him with immortal raiment (ambrota eimata), and gave him to swift conveyors, to the twin brothers, Sleep and Death, to bring with them, and they set him down speedily in the rich land of wide Lycia” (Murray 1925, 2:212-13).
  • Homer Il. 23.184-87 “So he [Achilles] spoke threatening, but no dogs were busy with Hector [i.e., his body], but the daughter of Zeus, Aphrodite, kept dogs from him by day and by night alike, and with oil she anointed him (chrien elaiôᵢ), rose-sweet, ambrosial, so that Achilles might not tear him as he dragged him” (Murray 1925, 2:507).

Reception

Theology

14c anointing him with oil Sacramentology: Matter of the Anointing of the Sick

  • Conc. Flor. Exs. Deo (DzH 1324) and Conc. Trid. Unc. 1 (DzH 1695) teach that the matter (materia) of the sacrament is olive oil (oleum olivae) blessed by a bishop.
  • CCC 1504 links Jesus’ use of “signs of healing” (use of saliva and touch) with the physical aspect of the sacraments: “And so in the sacraments Christ continues to ‘touch’ us in order to heal us.”

Islam

14c anointing him with oil Olives and Olive Oil in the Islamic Tradition The Qur'an and subsequent Islamic tradition continue biblical traditions that recognize both the everyday health benefits of olives and olive oil and employ them as eschatological symbols (see Biblical Intertextuality 5:14c; Peritestamental Literature 5:14c; Jewish Tradition 5:14c).

  • Qur’an 23:20 "And We send down water...With it We grow for you Gardens of date-palms and vines...Also a tree springing out of Mount Sinai, which produces oil, and relish for those who use it for food."
  • Qur’an 24:35 “God is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The parable of His Light is as if there were a Niche and within it a Lamp; the Lamp enclosed in Glass: the glass as it were a brilliant star: lit from a blessed Tree, an Olive, neither of the East nor of the West, whose oil is well-nigh Luminous, though fire scarce touch it: light upon light!" Al-Ghazali Mish. comments on this verse, identifying the olive tree with logical, discursive thinking, and olive oil with the transcendental prophetic spirit of prophets and saints.
  • Qur’an 95:1-3 associates the fig, the olive, Mount Sinai, and "this city of security" (a reference to Mecca).
  • In the hadith collection ibn Majah Sun. Maj. 4.29.3319:  "It was narrated from 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: 'Season (your food) with olive oil and anoint yourselves with it, for it comes from a blessed tree" (4:351).

Literature

14c anointing him with oil Literary References to Anointing of the Sick

  • Shakespeare Hamlet 1.5.77: The Ghost of Hamlet's father laments that his sudden murder left him, "cut off even in the blossoms of my sin, unhouseled, disappointed, unaneled." The Ghost refers to his lack of opportunity to prepare for death with the sacraments of the Eucharist, Penance, and Extreme Unction (55).
  • Sigrid Undset's trilogy Kristin Lavransdatter includes several scenes involving the dying confessing their sins and receiving last rites and the viaticum, including the deaths of Kristin's father and her own death (Undset Krist. Lav.).

Text

Vocabulary

15b raise The G verb egeirô has two possible meanings:

Context

Biblical Intertextuality

15f Association of Sin and Illness Different scriptures witness to the various ways in which sin and illness are associated. 

  • Illness, suffering, and death can be seen as the result of human sin (Gn 3:14-19Rom 5:12)
  • Disease is understood as a punishment for breaking God’s covenant law in many OT books: Ex 15:26; Dt 7:15; 28:15–22. A connection between sin and disease is also evident in some NT passages: 1Cor 11:30, and Jn 9:2: "Rabbi, who sinned, this man or his parents, that he was born blind?" See also Ps 38:2: "There is no wholesomeness in my flesh because of your anger; there is no health in my bones because of my sin." Cf. Peritestamental Literature 5:15-16.
  • The causal connection between sin and illness is questioned in the Book of Job (Jb 4:7-9; 7:20; 9:22-23). Jesus also questions the connection: "Neither he nor his parents sinned; it is so that the works of God might be made visible through him" (Jn 9:3), although Jesus assumes there is still some connection between the two (see Mk 2:1-12 and Lk 13:1-5).
  • Illness is at times associated with demonic activity, see Mk 9:17—a boy possessed by a mute spirit; Lk 13:11: a woman "crippled by a spirit."
  • Other passages also do not relate illness to sin, but instead promise salvation for the sick, e.g., Lazarus, a poor man covered with sores, who finds his eternal reward (Lk 16:19-31). See below Theology 5:15b; Theology 5:15c.

James says significantly in Jas 5:15, "If he happens to have committed any sins," those sins will be forgiven to the sick person. Thus James sees no necessary, causal connection between sin and sickness.

Text

Textual Criticism

16a sins  Nes (א BA) have tas hamartias, usually rendered in English as "sins." Some miniscules (e.g., 307, 442), Byz, and thus the TR read ta paraptômata, traditionally rendered in English as "trespasses." See comments of Erasmus below at Christian Tradition 5:16a.

Reception

Liturgies

16–20 Use in Lectionary RML (1570) : Rogation Days (Monday and Wednesday before Ascension).

Text

Vocabulary

1:3f,5:11 perseverance Courageous Patience James uses two word families to describe the virtue of patience: the noun hupomonê with the cognate verb hupomenô (used in Jas 1:3–4,12; 5:11) and makrothumeô / makrothumia (Vocabulary Jas 5:7-8,10).

Hupomonê is closely connected with testing (peirasmos): the testing of one's faith produces perseverance (hupomonê, Jas 1:4); the blessed person perseveres (hupomenô) through trial until he reaches his eschatological reward (Jas 1:12; 5:11). Job is held out as an example of hupomonê (Jas 5:11). See also Biblical Intertextuality 1:3.

The virtue of hupomonê is regularly discussed in conjunction with the virtue of courage (andreia) in the writing of Aristotle and the Stoics (Ancient Texts 1:3).

Reception

Liturgies

10–20 Use in Lectionary BL : Special and General Feasts: Prophets; 1 of 3 reading options.

Islam

11b perseverance of Job Character of Job In the Islamic tradition, Job is considered a prophet. His perseverance figures prominently. The Qur'an parallels James in connecting Job's perseverance with God's mercy,  "And (remember) Job, when he cried to his Lord, 'Truly distress has seized me, but thou art the most merciful of those that are merciful'" (Qur’an 21.83). After recounting Job's affliction and eventual reward (cf. Jb 42), God says, "Truly We found him full of patience and constancy" (Qur’an 38:44; cf. 38:41-44). See also Biblical Intertextuality 5:11b; Peritestamental Literature 5:11b; Christian Tradition 5:11b.

Context

Peritestamental Literature

14c oil Medicinal Uses of Oil in Second Temple Judaism The use of olive oil for medicinal and healing purposes was very common among Second Temple Jews:

Oil was used to drive out spirits who caused illness:

  • T. Sol. 18:33 "I am called Rhyx Anoster. I unleash hysteria and cause pains in the bladder. If anyone mashes up the seeds of laurel into pure oil (elaion katharon) and massages (the body with it), saying, 'I adjure you by Marmaraoth, I retreat immediately" (OTP 1:981, McCown 1922, 57-58*); cf. T. Sol. 18:34.

Reception

Visual Arts

14ff anointing him with oil Depictions of Anointing  The sacrament of the anointing of the sick ("extreme unction"), which the Catholic Church considers to be defined in Jas 5:14-15, has been depicted artistically in many ways:

Paintings

  • Rogier van der Weyden, "Extreme Unction", part of The Seven Sacraments altarpiece (1445-50). Koninklijk Museum, Antwerp. Accessed here→
  • Hieronymus Bosch (?), "Four Last Things," part of "The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Last Things," c. 1500. Museo del Prado, Madrid. Accessed here→
  • Dutch School, "Last rites," c. 1600. Accessed here→
  • Nicolas Poussin, "L'extrême-onction," c. 1636-40, part of a Seven Sacraments series. Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge. Accessed here→. Set in ancient times, a priest anoints the dying man's eyes.
  • Nicolas Poussin, "L'extrême-onction," 1644, part of a Seven Sacrament series. Scottish National Gallery, Edinburgh. Accessed here→. Set in ancient times, Poussin portrays a dying Christian soldier; a priest anoints his hands.
  • Giuseppe Crespi, "Extreme Unction," part of a Seven Sacraments series (c. 1712). Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden, Germany.  Accessed here→.

Etching

  • Pietro Longhi, "Extremae Unctionis Sacramentum," part of a Seven Sacraments series (c. 1755). Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Accessed here→.

Tapestries

  • "Seven Sacraments." South Netherlandish, c. 1435-50. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Accessed here→.

Suggestions for Reading

12 do not swear Context? James’ prohibition on swearing oaths has no obvious connection to either the previous discussion on the need for patient endurance in the face of Christ’s imminent parousia (Jas 5:7–11), nor to the following discourse on prayer (Jas 5:13–18). Equally ambiguous is the introductory phrase, “above all” (pro pantôn): the phrase’s comparison is not clear. Thematically, this prohibition of oaths may be seen as the culmination of James’ concern for proper speech in the community (Literary Devices 5:12b). 

James’ teaching is clearly based on Jesus’ (Christian Tradition 5:12b, Christian Tradition 5:12d, Christian Tradition 5:12e). James’ admonitions against swearing should be understood in light of the importance of oaths in both Greco-Roman and Jewish cultures, as well as traditional critiques of that practice (Ancient Cultures 5:12cAncient Texts 5:12bPeritestamental Literature 5:12b; Jewish Tradition 5:12b).

In the history of interpretation, early Christians and later Anabaptist traditions understood this verse as an absolute prohibition of all oaths; many Western churches followed Augustine’s interpretation that James only means to prohibit frequent, frivolous, or false oaths; oaths on solemn occasions such as courtroom oaths are licit (Christian Tradition 5:12b; Theology 5:12b). 

Text

Textual Criticism

10a suffering |א : nobility Instead of kakopathia  ("suffering"),  א reads kalokagathia ("goodness, nobility"). See also Literary Devices 5:10a.

12d But let your "yes" be | But Let Your Word Be: Harmonization with Mt 5:37  א, apparently influenced by the version of Jesus' saying in Mt 5:37, adds "the word" (logos) before the word "your", thus giving the reading, "Let your word be 'yes, yes' and 'no, no.'" S follows this reading (Comparison of Versions 5:12d).

12e into hypocrisy : Byz TR | Nes: under judgment 

  • P and Ψ read eis hupokrisin ("into hypocrisy") reading hupo krisin as one word. This reading is followed by Byz and TR (Literary Devices 5:12e; Christian Tradition 5:12e).
  • Nes reads hupo krisin ("under judgment"); the same reading is presumed by V and S. 

Vocabulary

7f,10 patient Patience vs. Perseverance The verb makrothumeô and its cognate noun makrothumia can mean:

  • Simply waiting for something. Thus Hebrews speaks of Abraham, “And so, after patient waiting, he obtained the promise” (Heb 6:15; cf. Heb 6:12). A servant who owed his master a great debt asks his master to have patience with (makrothumeo) him (Mt 18:26,29). 
  • Patient endurance in an uncomfortable condition. Thus Plutarch Vit. Par. Luc. 32.3 uses this word when describing Lucullus' exhortation of his soldiers to endure harsh winter conditions.

Comparison with the Virtue of Perseverance

James uses two word families to describe the virtue of patience: hupomonê / hupomenô (used in Vocabulary 1:3–4,5:11) and makrothumeô / makrothumia. Whereas hupomonê is closely connected with a trial (peirasmos), makrothumeô / makrothumia does not necessarily involve testing or suffering, but may simply involve waiting patiently for an event or person. Similarly, the cultural background of the words is strikingly different: makrothumeô / makrothumia is not a significant term in Greek philosophical ethics tradition, while hupomonê is regularly discussed in conjunction with the virtue of courage (andreia; Ancient Texts 1:3). On the other hand, makrothumia is an important quality of God (Biblical Intertextuality 5:7–10). 

In James

One can discern these two main elements in James’ use of makrothumeô / makrothumia in Jas 5:7–11

  • (1) Paired with the term “hardship” (kakopathia), the sense is of enduring hardships and trials, and thus is not essentially different from hupomonê / hupomenô.
  • (2) In the analogy with the farmer (v. 7) and the implied connection with the exhortation to the community to not complain against one another (v. 9), the sense is of being patient with events and with people (Christian Tradition 5:8a).

11c compassionate Hapax Legomenon James' term polusplagchnos is unattested in G or Greek literature before James. It is a hapax legomenon, but its meaning is not difficult to deduce. It is composed of polus, "much, great," and the noun splagchna, "innards," understood as the seat of passions, particularly compassion. Here James is  not directly dependent on G, for there we encounter a similar word pair oiktirmôn and polueleos (Neh 9:17; Ps 86:15 (85:15); Ps 103:8 (102:8); Jl 2:13; Jon 4:2).

The Shepherd of Hermas uses the adjective and cognate noun frequently to describe the Lord (Herm. Vis. 1.3.2 "the Lord's compassion has granted you and your household mercy"; 2.2.8; Sim. 5.7.4). See also Biblical Intertextuality 5:11c and Islam 5:11c.

Literary Devices

11a Look, we call blessed those who persevere Echo James echoes his earlier statement, "Blessed is the man who perseveres through trials" (Jas 1:12). In that passage, James specifies that the blessedness of those who persevere consists in their receiving their eschatological reward: the crown of life.

12a above all Ambiguity of the Introductory Phrase There are several possibilities for how the Greek phrase pro pantôn relates to the rest of James' letter:

  • it serves to introduce the final part of the letter (Jas 5:12-20), drawing attention to the discussion of oaths as of special importance;
  • it indicates that the prohibition of oaths is the most important teaching of James given this far in the letter;
  • the phrase is independent of its context and simply indicates the importance of this teaching.

In any case, the phrase is awkward in its current position.

12b do not swear Theme of Improper Speech This prohibition may be seen as the culmination of James' concern for proper speech in the community: 

  • Jas 1:19: one should be slow to speak;
  • Jas 1:26: one should bridle his tongue;
  • Jas 3:1-12: dangers of not controlling one's tongue;
  • Jas 4:11: one should not speak badly of a brother;
  • Jas 5:9: community members should not grumble against one another;
  • Jas 5:12: "Above all": prohibition on swearing oaths.

Context

Biblical Intertextuality

10b in the name of the Lord Speaking and Acting with Divine Authority

  • The Old Testament prophets often speak "in the name of the Lord" (G: en tôᵢ onomati kuriou), as in Jer 20:9; Dn 9:6 (Theodotion). The phrase carries the sense of speaking as a representative of the Lord, or by the authority or power of the Lord. It also applies to cursing (2Kgs 2:24).
  • The phrase is also applied to other actions done by the authority and power of the Lord. Thus the elders of James' church anoint the sick "in the name of the Lord" (Literary Devices 5:14-15).  Jesus' disciples heal (Acts 3:6) and cast out demons "in the name of the Lord" (Mk 9:38; Lk 10:17); cf. baptizing in the name of Jesus Christ (Acts 10:48).
  • The Gloss. Ord. ad loc. (interlinear gloss) offers two further possibilities: they speak in the name of the Lord by invoking the name (invocatione nominis), or when they speak for the purpose of spreading the name (ad ampliandum nomen; cols. 1299-1300).

11b perseverance of Job Biblical Portrait of Job The figure of Job as a model of patient endurance is seen primarily in the prose introduction (ch. 1-2) and ending (ch. 42). For example:

  • Jb 1:21: "Naked I came forth from my mother's womb, and naked shall I go back there. The Lord gave and the Lord has taken away; blessed be the name of the Lord!"
  • Jb 2:10: "We accept good things from God; should we not accept evil?"

By contrast, in the verse dialogue with his friends, which comprises the main portion of the book, Job often complains that the Lord is treating him unfairly (e.g., Jb 7:11-16; 10:18; 23:2). Elsewhere Job is remembered as the paradigmatic righteous man (Ez 14:14). James apparently presumes that his readers will be familiar with other traditions (e.g., as reflected in T. Job) that emphasize Job's patience and perseverance. See also Peritestamental Literature 5:11b ; Christian Tradition 5:11b; Islam 5:11b.

11c merciful God’s Merciful Nature James uses the term oiktirmôn to describe the Lord, evoking a rich background of references to the merciful Lord, as in the following examples. 

  • "The Lord, a God gracious (oiktirmôn) and merciful, slow to anger (makrothumos) and abounding in love and fidelity, (Ex 34:6; cf. Ps 143:8 [G-144:8]). See Jl 2:13, Jon 4:2 and many similar passages for the combination of oiktirmôn and makrothumos as descriptors of God. 
  • "Since the Lord, your God, is a merciful (oiktirmôn) God, he will not abandon or destroy you, nor forget the covenant with your ancestors that he swore to them" (Dt 4:31).
  • "But God being compassionate (oiktirmôn) forgave their sin; he did not utterly destroy them" (Ps 78:38 [G-77:38]).

Peritestamental Literature

12b do not swear Criticism of Frequent and Frivolous Oaths

Josephus on the Essenes' Avoidance of Oaths

  • According to Josephus B.J. 2.135 the Essenes avoided oaths, "any word of theirs has more force than an oath (horkos); swearing they avoid (omnuein periistantai), regarding it as worse than perjury, for they say that one who is not believed without an appeal to God stands condemned already" (cf. A.J.15.370-71).

This passage apparently applies to more trivial oaths, however, since B.J. 2.139-42 himself also refers to the Essenes' requirement that initiates take solemn oaths (horkous omnuô) when fully entering the community. The Dead Sea Scrolls also evidence oath-taking (e.g., →CD 9.9-12; 15.1-3).

Philo's Criticism of Frequent or Frivolous Swearing of an Oath

  • Philo Decal. 92 criticises those who have "an evil habit of swearing (omnuô) incessantly and thoughtlessly about ordinary matters where there is nothing at all in dispute, filling up the gaps in their talk with oaths... for from much swearing springs false swearing (pseudorkia) and impiety" (Colson 1937, 52-53).
  • In his commentary on the commandment to not take the name of the Lord in vain, Philo Spec. 2.2 advocates avoiding the swearing of oaths (omnuô), but if they must be taken, they should not be sworn with God as a witness, but rather "the oath should be by a father and mother, their good health and welfare if they are alive, their memory (mnêmê) if they are dead" (Colson 1937, 306-307).
  • Spec. 2.5 also recommends swearing by "earth, sun, stars, heaven, and the whole universe," since they were created before humans and are in fact eternal (Colson 1937, 308-39). The holiness of God's name must be protected by avoiding frivolous or false oaths: a false oath "pollutes (miainô) the name that is by nature unpolluted, the name of God" (Spec. 4.40; Colson 1937, 332-333).

Reception

Liturgies

7–10 Use in Lectionary

  • RML: 3rd Sunday in Advent, Year A.
  • RCL : 3rd Sunday in Advent, Year A.

12 Liturgical Reading from Augustine’s Time Augustine of Hippo Serm. 180.1 preached a sermon on Jas 5:12: Prima lectio quae nobis hodie recitata est apostoli Jacobi (Boodts 2016, 657).

Christian Tradition

12e so that you do not fall under judgment

  • Bede Ep. cath. ad loc. and Ps.-Hilary of Arles Tract. Iac. ad loc. connect this verse with Mt 12:36, "people will render an account for every careless word they speak." This should motivate believers to avoid superfluous oaths and focus on the integrity of their everyday speech.  
  • Calvin Comm. Iac. ad loc. comments that some manuscripts read fall into hypocrisy" (hupokrisin; L: simulationem) rather than "fall under judgment" (hupo krisin; Textual Criticism 5:12e). Both readings are legitimate for Calvin: To "fall under judgment" means the punishment one incurs for taking the Lord's name in vain by frivolous oaths. To fall "into hypocrisy" refers to the hypocritical attitude of one who resorts to superfluous oaths to bolster his credibility (Owen 1849, 354; Reuss and Erichson 1896, 430). 

Text

Textual Criticism

16a Confess Nes (א BAC) retains oun ("then") after “confess”.

Vocabulary

10a,13a suffering Active Attitude The noun kakopathia in v. 10 means literally “suffering of evil.” Its cognate verb kakopatheô, “to suffer,” we will find slightly further in Jas 5:13. It comes from the noun pathos, “experience, emotion, state,” and kakos, “evil,” (compare by contrast eupatheô, “to enjoy oneself”).

13b in good spirits The verb euthumeô refers to having good courage; thus Acts 27:22: "I urge you now to keep up your courage" (euthumein). It denotes the ability to face difficulties calmly without complaint—cf. Plutarch Tranq. an. [Mor. 465E - 477F] and V's translation aequo animo est, lit. having an equal mind.

14a sick The verb astheneô (“being sick”) refers generally to physical illness or weakness (e.g., Mt 10:8; Mt 25:36), in contrast to the broader range of physical, mental, or emotional suffering denoted by the term “suffering” (kakopatheô; V-tristatur, “being gloomy, dismal”), used in v. 13. See also Christian Tradition 5:14b, Christian Tradition 5:14c, Liturgies 5:14b, and Liturgies 5:14c.

Grammar

13f Declarative or Interrogative? The three opening questions may also be translated as declaratives, e.g., “Someone among you is suffering,” or (as S does) as conditionals: “If someone among you is suffering.”

Literary Devices

13–18 pray prayer...plea: Isotopy of Prayer Every verse in this passage refers to prayer; however, the words used are not simple synonyms. The noun euchê (prayer, v. 15) and the corresponding verb euchomai (to pray, v. 16) are generic terms. The verb expressing the prayer of petition is proseuchomai (v. 13, 14, 17,18) or proseuchê (v. 17). More concretely, the noun deêsis (v. 16) stands for a supplication or a particular request. As for psallô ("to sing a hymn," v. 13), it applies to prayer in the form of a hymn, in particular in the liturgical context.

15ab save the sick ...the Lord will raise him up: Syllepsis, Ambiguity between Literal and Metaphorical Meanings In Jas 5:15ab, James likely has an intentional play on the literal and metaphorical meanings of the two verbs.

  • The verb sôᵢzô can be used in freeing or saving someone from a disease, e.g., Jesus' instruction to the woman with the hemorrhage: "Your faith has saved (sôᵢzô) you. Go in peace and be cured of your affliction" (Mk 5:34); see also Diodorus Siculus Bib. hist. 1.82.3 on the physicians' ability to save the patient (sôsai ton kamnonta; 1:280). In the NT, it also frequently refers to eternal salvation; e.g., 2Tm 4:18: "The Lord will rescue me from every evil threat and will bring me safe (sôᵢzô) to his heavenly kingdom." Elsewhere in James, sôᵢzô always refers to eternal salvation (Jas 1:21; 2:14; 4:12; 5:20).
  • The verb egeirô refers literally to raising up a person physically (e.g. Acts 3:7). Yet in an extended sense it is applied to raising people from the dead (e.g., Mt 10:8), it is used especially in reference to Jesus’ resurrection (Mt 16:21; Acts 3:15; Rom 6:4).

James may thus suggest an intimate connection between healing from a sickness and eternal salvation: perhaps the physical saving / raising is a sign or foreshadowing of eternal salvation / raising from the dead, or perhaps the physical saving / raising already participates in eternal salvation and raising in a proleptic manner. See further Christian Tradition 5:15a; Christian Tradition 5:15b; Liturgies 5:14-15; Theology 5:14-15.

Context

Peritestamental Literature

14c–15 anointing + save | Anointing and Salvation in Second Temple Judaism James' link between the anointing ritual and eschatological salvation (Literary Devices 5:14-15) reflects the Second Temple Jewish connection between anointing with oil and final salvation.

  • Apoc. Mos. 9.3; 13.2–3 (cf. L.A.E. Latin 36.2 [= oil of life = oleum vitae]; 40-42; 40:1: oil of mercy = oleum misericordiae): Adam, ill because of his sins, will receive a healing anointing with oil (G = elaion) from a tree in Paradise at the final resurrection (Cf. other references to an olive tree in Paradise: 2 En. 8:4 [shorter recension]; Gen. Rab. 33:6 ad Gn 8:10).
  • 2 En. 22:8–10; cf. 56:2: Enoch’s anointing with "delightful oil" marks his transition from his earthly existence into becoming “like one of the glorious ones, and there was no observable difference" (OTP, 1:138-39; Macaskill 2013, 102-3). See also 3 Bar. 15 (Greek): baskets of oil [elaion] as eschatological reward.
  • Jos. Asen. 8.5 (cf. 15.5): anointing with a “blessed ointment of incorruptibility” (chrietai chrismati eulogêmenôᵢ aphtharsias; OTP 2:212; Philonenko 1968, 154); cf. T. Adam 1.7.

15f Association of Sin and Illness

  • T. Reu. 1.7: "[God] struck me with a severe wound (plêgê megalê) in my loins for seven months [as punishment for Reuben's sexual sins]" (OTP 2:782; de Jonge 1978, 2).
  • T. Sim. 2.12-13 "for seven days my right hand became partly withered [the Lord's punishment of Simeon for his desire to kill Joseph out of jealousy]" (OTP 2:785).
  • T. Zeb. 5.3 "For the sons of my brothers were sickly (astheneô) and died on account of Joseph (dia Iôsêph), because they did not act in mercy out of their inner compassion" (OTP 2:806; de Jonge 1978, 96).
  • T. Gad. 5.9-11 "For God brought on me a disease (nosos) of the liver...For by whatever human capacity anyone transgresses, by that he is also chastised. Since my anger was merciless in opposition to Joseph, through this anger of mine I suffered mercilessly, and was brought under judgment for eleven months" (OTP 2:815; de Jonge 1978, 130-31).

16a Confess the failings to one another Confession of Sins at Qumran

  • →1QS 1.22–25 “And the levites shall recite the iniquities of the children of Israel…[And al]l those who enter the covenant shall confess after them and they shall say: 'We have acted sinfully, we have transgressed….'” (DSSSE 1:70-71).

Reception

Jewish Tradition

15f Association between Physical Healing and Forgiveness of Sin

  •  b. Ned. 41a “R. Alexander said in the name of R. Hiyya b. Abba: ‘A sick man does not recover from his sickness until all his sins are forgiven him, as it is written, ‘Who forgives all your iniquity, who heals all your diseases’” (Ps 103:3). Cf. Biblical Intertextuality 5:15-16.

Christian Tradition

15a prayer of faith will save Centrality of the Prayer

  • The earliest interpretations of Jas 5:14-18 focused on prayer and the forgiveness of sin as opposed to physical healing (cf. Christian Tradition 5:14-15).
  • Bonaventure Comm. IV Sent. 4.23.1.4 "in the institution of the sacrament James would seem to locate the greatest power (maximam vim) in the prayer and attribute all of its efficacy (totam efficacium) to it when he says, 'the prayer of faith will save the sick.' He does not say that anointing will do this" (Hellmann 2016, et al., 371; Collegi S. Bonaventurae, 595). 
  • Luther Capt. Bab. "James made careful and diligent provision in this case by attaching the promise of healing and the forgiveness of sins not to the unction, but to the prayer of faith" (LW 36:121; WA 6:570).
  • Zwingli Iac. Expos. ad loc. attributes any regaining of health in this ritual to the prayer of faith, not to the anointing for the oil. Zwingli notes that James here refers to the ancient practice of anointing, practiced also by Christ's disciples, and comments that oil is beneficial for many ailments as a medicine (pharmacum; 49).

Theology

14f Sacramentology: Promulgation of the Anointing of the Sick. Roman Catholic doctrine teaches that Jesus instituted the sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick (traditionally known as “Extreme Unction”), and that James "promulgated" the sacrament (Jas 5:14–15).

  • Conc. Trid. Unc. “This sacred anointing of the sick was instituted (instituta est) by Christ our Lord as a true and proper sacrament (vere et proprie sacramentum) of the New Testament. It is alluded to indeed (quidem insinuatum) by Mark [cf. Mk 6:13], but it is recommended to the faithful and promulgated (fidelibus commendatum ac promulgatum) by James the apostle and brother of the Lord” (DzH 1695).
  • Rom. Inq. Lament. 48 condemns the "modernist" teaching that "In his Epistle (Ch. 5:14-15) James did not intend to promulgate a Sacrament of Christ but only commend a pious custom."
  • CCC 1510 “the apostolic Church has its own rite for the sick, attested (testatur) by St. James: [quotation of Jas 5:14-15]. Tradition has recognized in this rite (i.e., Jas 5:14–15) one of the seven sacraments” (cf. 1499–1532).

Text

Literary Devices

10a suffering and of patience Hendiadys James here connects two nouns: suffering (kakopathia; Vocabulary 5:10a) and patience (makrothumia; Vocabulary 5:7f,10). One may simply translate, "an example of suffering and patience." Alternatively, one may take the second noun to modify the first by hendiadys, thus leading to a translation of "patient suffering" or "patience in suffering."  A close parallel is 4 Macc. 9:8, which links kakopathia and hupomonê.

13a suffering |good spirits: Antithesis The first two questions establish an antithesis between interior suffering and serenity. V, which translates kakopathei with the verb tristatur (evoking affliction or discouragement) only makes this antithesis more precise. Far from focusing on a contrast between sadness and cheerfulness, as is often thought, the phrase evokes rather the opposition between interior grief and a courageous serenity, frames of mind that each lead to a different form of prayer.

Suggestions for Reading

7–11 Theme of Patience

Theme of Patience

Jas 5:7-11 focuses on various aspects of patience (using two words to express the idea: makrothumeô / makrothumia and hupomenô / hupomonê). James' admonitions address two main aspects of patience:

  • waiting patiently for something, in this case for the coming of the Lord (parousia Kuriou) (vv. 7-8);
  • patiently bearing hardship and suffering (vv. 10-11).

Relationship of v. 9 to the Rest of the Passage

Verse 9a, with its admonition to not speak badly of fellow believers, fits awkwardly within the thematic flow of Jas 5:7-11, leading some commentators to conclude that it originally was an independent saying. The other verses in Jas 5:7-11 focus on patience, while v. 9 echoes James' earlier admonitions that community members not speak badly about one another (see especially Jas 4:11, and earlier admonitions on the dangers of improper speech in Jas 1:19,26, and especially Jas 3:1-12). With its further connection with the theme of judgment ("so that you are not judged"), however, the verse does fit into a further theme of the Jas 5:7-11 passage: eschatological judgment. 

The implicit logic seems to be the following: complaining against one's fellow believer is equivalent to judging him. If one judges another person, then one in turn brings judgment on oneself. This judging, in any case, is illicit, since there is only one legitimate judge: Jesus Christ. 

By placing this admonition here, James may imply that community members should patiently bear suffering caused by fellow community members, rather than complain against them.

Vocabulary

11b the end of the Lord Purpose The meaning of this lapidary phrase (telos Kuriou; V: finis Domini) is ambiguous. The title Kurios may refer either to God the Father or to Jesus. Telos can have two basic meanings in this context:

The phrase is clearly set in parallel to James' reference to Job: "you have heard of the perseverance of Job" and "you have seen the telos Kuriou." The reference, then, is most likely to the Lord's final purpose or result, referring to Job's perseverance. In other words, the reference is to Job's vindication at the end of the book when Job's wealth and family are restored. A prominent interpretive trend, current in James' time, however, understands Job's final vindication as receiving eternal life. References to the resurrection are already apparent: G-Job and T. Job frequently refer to Job's heavenly reward. 

This eschatological interpretation is supported by James' calling those who have persevered "blessed"—a clear reference to Jas 1:12 which speaks of the eschatological crown to be won by those who persevere through their trials.

Grammar

11c Because compassionate is the Lord and merciful Explanatory Hoti Clause The conjunction hoti introduces an explanatory or causal phrase: the Lord brought about a blessed final result for Job, because the Lord is exceedinly compassionate and merciful.

Context

Ancient Texts

12b do not swear Criticism of Oaths Against the common Greco-Roman use of oaths as a guarantee for the truthfulness of a statement (Ancient Cultures 5:12c), Stoic and other philosophical schools urged their followers to avoid oaths and rely on the trustworthiness of their own statements:

  • Diogenes Laërtius Vit. Phil. 8.22: Pythagoras is said to have advised his disciples, "Not to call the gods to witness (mêd' omnunai theous); man's duty being rather to strive to make his own word carry conviction" (axiopiston parechein; Hicks 1925, 338-41). 
  • Epictetus Enchr. 33.5 teaches, "Refuse, if you can, to take an oath at all (horkon paraiteomai), but if that is impossible, refuse as far as circumstances allow" (Oldfather 1928, 516-17). Like James, Epictetus links the avoidance of swearing with restained speech: "And be silent for the most part, or else make only the most necessary remarks, and express these in few words" (Oldfather 1928, 516-17; cf. Jas 1:26). 
  • Marcus Aurelius Med. 3.5 admonishes his reader "Be not a man of superfluous words...having need neither of oath nor of any man's testimony" (mête horkou deomenos mête anthrôpou tinos marturos;Haines 1916, 52-53).

Peritestamental Literature

10a example …of suffering: Persecution of the Prophets A central theme in Second Temple Judaism portrays in further detail the faithful sufferings of the prophets and other biblical figures, e.g., Mart. Ascen. Isa. and Vit. Proph.  See also Biblical Intertextuality 5:10b.

11b perseverance of Job Portrait of Job The Testament of Job (1st c. BC – 1st c. AD) shows remarkable parallels with James' portrait of Job.

Focus on the Perseverance of Job

Its central focus is the virtue of hupomonê

  • T. Job 1.5: At the beginning of the work, Job tells his children, "I am your father Job, fully engaged in endurance" (hupomonê).
  •  T. Job 26.5: Job says, "Rather let us be patient (makrothumeô) until the Lord, in pity, shows us mercy." 
  • T. Job 27.7: Job tells his children, "you also must be patient in everything that happens to you. For patience (makrothumia) is better than anything."

Eternal Life as a Reward for Job's Endurance

The Testament also emphasizes eternal life as Job's reward for his endurance, paralleling Jas 1:12 and possibly Jas 5:11b (see also Vocabulary 5:11b and Christian Tradition 5:11b).

  • "You [Job] shall be raised up in the resurrection. For you will be like a sparring athlete, both enduring (kartereô) pains and winning the crown" (T. Job 4.9-10).
  • Job says, "my heart is fixed on heavenly concerns, for there is no upset in heaven" (T. Job 36.3).

One sees this interpretive tradition already in G-Jb 42:17, which adds to the account of Job's death the comment, "It is written that he will rise again with those the Lord raises up." Christians read other passages as references to the resurrection:  Jb 14:14, "For if a man dies, shall he live again?"; G-Jb 19:26, "may my skin rise up" (cited in 1 Clem. 26.3 as a proof of the resurrection). See also Biblical Intertextuality 5:11b; Christian Tradition 5:11b and Islam 5:11b.

Reception

Comparison of Versions

10a take as an example, my brothers Textual Addition

  • Bede Ep. cath. ad loc. (Hurst 1983, 219) and the Gloss. Ord. (col. 1300) adds exitus mali et longanimitatis ("of the result of evil and longsuffering") before "of hardship and patience";
  • C also adds exitus mali.

Liturgies

9–12 Use in Lectionary RML : Friday, Week 7, Year 2.

Jewish Tradition

12b neither by heaven Pharisaic / Rabbinic Debate on the Binding Nature of Oaths The Mishnah distinguishes between vows (nᵉdārîm) and oaths (šᵉbû‘ôt). Several tractates are devoted to legal discussions on vows or oaths: Nedarim (Vows), Nazir (the Nazarite Vow), and Shevu'ot (Oaths), thus showing the importance of vows and oaths for the rabbis.  

One frequent topic of discussion is the circumstances under which an oath or vow is not binding, e.g.,

  • m. Ned. 3.1 "Four kinds of vow the Sages have declared not to be binding" (Danby 1933, 266).

Discussion on this topic certainly dates back to the first-century, as evidenced in passages such as Mt 5:34-37 and Mt 23:16-22.

The original practice of swearing by the name of God (Biblical Intertextuality 5:12b) was avoided in many quarters, perhaps to avoid pronouncing the holy name. Jews then swore by a variety of lesser authorities: by heaven, earth, the Temple, articles on the altar, a person's head (perhaps representing the person's life; cf. m. Ker. 1.7;  b. Ber. 3a).

Rabbinic literature records a dispute on the binding nature of oaths sworn by these lesser authorities:

  • m. Sanh. 3.2 "If a man must take an oath before his fellow, and his fellow said to him, 'Vow to me by the life of they head,' R. Meir says, He may retract. But the Sages say: He cannot retract (Danby 1933, 385; cf. m. Ned. 1.3).

A similar distinction between a binding and non-binding vow is evident in Jesus' reference to Pharisaic teaching, "If one swears by the temple, it means nothing, but if one swears by the gold of the temple, one is obligated" (Mt 23:16).

Jesus' teaching rejects this distinction between binding and non-binding oaths. Since all created things have a relationship with God, an oath by a created thing implies an oath to God: "one who swears by the temple swears by it and by him who dwells in it; one who swears by heaven swears by the throne of God and by him who is seated on it" (Mt 23:16).

Jesus' teaching goes further, however, in rejecting the need for oaths at all: "Let your 'yes' mean yes, and your 'no' mean no" (Mt 5:37). There should be no need to further verify the truth of a trustworthy person's statements. This then is the implicit logic behind James' less sophisticated version: "do not swear, either by heaven or by earth or with any other oath." See also Ancient Cultures 5:12c and Christian Tradition 5:12b.

Christian Tradition

11b end of the Lord Interpretation of Telos Kuriou ("end of the Lord") The tradition offers a variety of interpretations (several commentatators offer more than one).

The "End" God Planned for Job:

The "End of the Lord" Refers to the Death, Resurrection, and Ascension of Jesus

  • Augustine of Hippo Symb. 10 (= Serm. 398.10) interprets the "end of the Lord" in this verse as a reference to Jesus' death on the cross, an event in which Augustine already implicity sees Jesus' resurrection. Thus, in Augustine's reading, James admonishes his readers to focus on the patience of Job, but not on the "end of Job" (Job receiving double as his recompense for earthly suffering), since the hope of recompense might spark avarice in the reader. Rather, the focus should be on the "end of the Lord": the hope of eternal life after death, "the reason you must have patience is so that you may rise again and not die, that is, never die, like Christ (ut resurgas et non moriaris, id est, numquam moriaris, sicut Christus; Hill 1995, 452 ; Vander Plaetse 1969, 195). See also Augustine of Hippo Ep. 140.26.
  • The Gloss. Ord. (V) ad loc. (interlinear) contrasts the temporal goods that were restored to Job as the "old man" (i.e., humanity before the new life in Christ) with Christ, the "new man" who bore every suffering in this world, but in his "end" was given resurrection (in fine datur resurrectio; cols. 1299-1300).
  • Martin of León Exp. Jac. ad loc.: Job is an example for bearing the sufferings of this life, and Christ is an example of bearing with the sufferings of death, with the hope of eternal life (cols. 210-11). Cf. the simlar teaching in Bede Ep. cath. ad loc. (Hurst 1985, 59-60; Hurst 1983, 220) and Ps.-Hilary of Arles Tract. Iac. ad loc. (81).
  • Lapide Comm. ad loc. summarizes the previous interpretations. Read analogically (anagogice), the "end of Christ" refers to Christ's resurrection, his ascension, the sending of the Spirit, the exalation of his name, and his worship among all nations (20:211).

12b do not swear History of Interpretation: Strict and Modified Comment on James' teaching in later Christian tradition often combined this passage with Jesus' very similar teaching in Mt 5:33-37 (Biblical Intertextuality 5:12b).

Early Tradition: Literal Understanding that all Oaths are Prohibited

Early Christian tradition understood Jesus' commandment forbidding oaths in Mt 5:33-37 and / or Jas 5:12 to be absolute; see Justin  1 Apol. 16.5; Irenaeus Haer. 2.32.1; Tertullian Idol. 11.1; Eusebius of Caesarea Praep. ev. 1.4; John Chrysostom Hom. Matt. 17.5; Ps.-Clem. Hom. 3.55.1. Even Origen Princ. 4.3.4 insisted that this commandment should be interpreted literally (kata tên lexin têrêteon) (Butterworth 1973, 295; Koetschau 1913, 330). Specific comments on Jas 5:12 include:

Later Interpretations: Limitations on Oaths

Augustine

By the time of Augustine, however, the understanding of an absolute prohibition of oaths in Jas 5:12 and in Mt 5:34-37 is modified.

Augustine of Hippo Serm. 180 on Jas 5:12 (Hill 1997, 3/5: 314-22); Boodts 2016, 657-84) makes the basic arguments that will be taken up by later Christian authors; cf. a similar discussion in → Ep. 157.40; see also Augustine's similar interpretation of the version in Mt 5:34-37→ Serm. Dom. 1.17.51; cf. De Mend. 28.

  • James could not have meant that one should not swear at all, since God himself swears (e.g., Gn 22:16); the Law allows swearing (Augustine quotes the Matthean summary of OT teaching in Mt 5:33; cf. Lv 19:12; Ps 50:14), and even Paul in the NT swears oaths (e.g., Gal 1:20: "As to what I am writing to you, behold, before God, I am not lying"; cf. 2Cor 1:23).
  • The commandment was given as a precaution to keep people away from habit of swearing lightly and frivolously and above all to avoid the great sin of swearing falsely. James' introductory phrase, "Above all," means that Christians should be especially alert to avoid making frequent and frivolous oaths.
  • Swearing an oath is legitimate in situations where the truth cannot be established without the help of an oath.
  • Commenting on the version in Mt 5:34-37 , Augustine's → Serm. Dom. 1.17.51 thus interprets the final phrase of v 37, "Anything more is from evil" [or "the evil one"] thus : "anything more" refers to swearing an oath; this legitimate swearing is not evil in itself, but comes from the evil situation in which one is forced to swear because of another party requires an oath before he will believe (Campbell 2014, 51-52; Mutzenbecher 1967, 59; cf. De Mend. 28).
Later Patristic and Medieval Interpretation

 Later interpretation followed Augustine's lead in taking James to limit, rather than prohibit, taking oaths.

  •  Bede Ep. cath. ad loc. understands this as the culimination of James' teaching on controlling one's speech. The commandment is given to avoid the dangers of swearing excessively and lightly, which can lead to the sin of perjury; Bede connects it with Jesus' teaching in Mt 12:36. One should avoid swearing, "except under pressing necessity" (nisi proxima necessitate; Hurst 1985, 60; Hurst 1983, 220). See also Nicholas of Lyra Post. ad loc. (col. 1301).
  • Apos. Con. 2.36.5 "Avoid swearing falsely, and swearing often, and in vain (epiorkian kai poluorkian mataion pheuge); for you shall not be held guiltless," implying that some oaths are permissible (ANF 7:413; Funk 1906, 123).
  • Apos. Con. 7.3.4 "You shall not forswear yourself (epiorkêseis); for it is said, 'You shall not swear at all' (Mt 5:34). But if that cannot be avoided, you shall swear truly; for 'every one that swears by Him shall be commended'" (G-Ps 62:12; ANF 7:466; Funk 1906, 392).
  • But cf. Apos. Con. 5.12, which seems to assume that the Lord prohibited all oaths.
  • Aquinas ST 2-2.89.2, considering the question, "Whether it is lawful to swear" (iurare), quotes clear Scriptural commandments forbidding swearing. Yet, on the contrary, reads, "The Lord, your God, shall you fear; him shall you serve, and by his name shall you swear."  Thomas argues that an oath is in itself lawful and commendable (iuramentum secundum se est licitum et honestum), since humans swear because they think that God (called on as a witness in the oath) possesses all truth and knowledge, and because oaths are used to attain justice and put an end to disputes (Hb 6:16). Thomas appeals to Augustine's arguments that the apostle Paul's clear use of oaths in his letters means that they are licit (De Mend. 28) and his interpretation of Mt 5:37 (→ Serm. Dom. 1.17). An oath is only evil when one "employs it without necessity and due caution" (sine necessitate et cautela debita; English Dominicans 1947, 3:1573-74). 
  • The Gloss. Ord. (V) quotes Bede's arguments (Gloss. Ord. (V) adds Augustine's argument) that James prohibits rash and false oaths, but not swearing oaths in itself (col. 1301).

Interpretation in the Reformed Tradition

  • Calvin Comm. Iac. ad loc. explicity rejects the interpretation of the Anabaptists (Anabapistae) that James means to prohibit the swearing of oaths in general. Rather, he teaches that the purpose of James and Jesus was to condemn the habit of swearing by lesser authorities (e.g., heaven and earth), since, as Jesus' taught, when one swears by a created thing one implicitly swears by the Creator. Calvin takes this habit as a violation of the commandment, "You shall not invoke the name of the Lord, your God, in vain" (Ex 20:7). The modifier "in vain" implies that the name of the Lord can be used properly. He intereprets the "above all" in Jas 5:12 as referring to the seriousness of violating this commandment (Owen 1849, 352-53; Reuss and Erichson 1896, 429). 
  • Creedal statements in the Reformed tradition allow swearing when required by government authorities or on other serious occasions, but see unnecessary swearing as a violation of the commandment against taking the Lord's name in vain: Heid. Cat. qq. 99-101; WCF 22; Presbyt. Conf. 31.

Licit to Swear Oaths in Court

Among interpreters who limit the scope of James' prohibition, several specificy that James does not forbid swearing an oath in a court of law when it is necessary.

  • Art. XXXIX "As we confess that vain and rash (iuramentum vanum, et temerarium) swearing is forbidden (interdictum esse) Christian men by our Lord Jesus Christ, and James his apostle, so we judge that Christian religion doth not prohibit (minime prohibere censemus), but that a man may swear when the magistrate requireth in a cause of faith and charity (in causa fidei, et charitatis), so it be done according to the prophet's teaching, in justice, judgment, and truth" (CCFCT 2:539; Evans and Wright 1991, 173); cf. Heid. Cat. Q. 101.

Literal Interpretations of the Radical Reformers

Groups in the radical Reformation and related traditions revived a strict interpretation of Jesus' prohibition of oaths. 

  • Swiss Brethren: The 1527 Schleitheim Confession of the Swiss Brethren includes an extended justification for the refusal to take any oath, although it only references Jesus' teaching at Mt 5:33-37 (Schl. Conf. 7; CCFCT 2:701-2; Fast 1973, 2:33).
  • Mennonite Tradition: The 1632 Dutch Mennonite Dordrecht Confession cites Jas 5:12, along with Mt 5:34, and 2Cor 1:17 in support of their practice of refusing to take any oath whatsoever, including civic or legal oaths (Dor. Conf. art. 15; CCFCT 2:782; Brüsewitz and Krebber 1983, 52). Cf. Simons Conf. 7 (519); Simons Ep. Micron (Wenger 1956, 924-25); Ris Menn. Art. 30  (CCFCT, 3:189; Ris 1766, 148).
  • Quaker Tradition: Penn Treat. Oath. is a 1675 apology for the Quakers' refusal to swear oaths references Jas 5:12, along with Mt 5:34, Jer 32:10 and a host of Greco-Roman, Jewish, patristic, and medieval witnesses. See also Friends Conf. 21 (CCFCT, 3:147; Barclay 1857, 90-91).
  • Several groups, including the Cathari, the Waldensians, and followers of John Wycliffe, took the passage literally (Allison 2013, 724).

Higher Standard for Religious

  • Leander of Seville Inst. virg. 29 (19) advises religious sisters, "Never take an oath (numquam jurare), always tell the truth; these precepts are to be observed equally. Although the carnal (carnalibus) are allowed to swear from terror of fraud, the spiritual (spiritualibus) may never use oaths, even though they have a clear conscience" (Barlow 1969, 224; PL 78:891). Leander refers to Mt 5:37.

Theology

12b do not swear Church Tradition on Swearing Oaths The Catechism of the Catholic Church makes the following points:

  • CCC 2150 "The second commandment forbids false oaths. Taking an oath or swearing is to take God as witness to what one affirms. It is to invoke the divine truthfulness as a pledge of one's own truthfulness."
  • CCC 2153: Citing the second commandment and Mt 5:37, the CCC states, "Jesus teaches that every oath involves a reference to God and that God's presence and his truth must be honored in all speech. Discretion in calling upon God is allied with a respectful awareness of his presence, which all our assertions either witness to or mock."
  • CCC 2154: Church tradition, in line with Paul's example (referencing 2Cor 1:23 and Gal 1:20), "has understood Jesus' words as not excluding oaths made for grave and right reasons" (gravi et justa fit de causa; for example, in court). The Catechism quotes the Code of Canon Law, "An oath, that is the invocation of the divine name as a witness to truth, cannot be taken unless in truth, in judgment, and in justice" (CIC can. 1199 par. 1).
  • CCC 2155: Addressing civil oaths, the Catechism teaches that oaths required by illegitimate civil authorities may be refused. Such an oath must be refused "when it is required for purposes contrary to the dignity of persons or to ecclesial communion."

Context

Ancient Texts

14c oil Importance and Meaning of Oil In Ancient Mediterranean culture, olive oil was a staple of daily life and was associated with strength, cleanliness, honor, and good health.

Oil in Daily Life

  • Olives and olive oil were major items of trade (cf. Rv 18:13).
  • Athletes used it for exercising (e.g., Pliny Nat. 15.19).
  • Anointing with oil after bathing was common (e.g., Homer Il. 10.577-79).
  • Olive oil was commonly used in daily life for cooking and for illumination in oil lamps (cf. Mt 25:3).
  • Pliny Nat. 15.7-8 alludes to its widespread use: "nature (natura)...did not desire us to be sparing in the use of oil, and she has made it universal even among common people" (promiscuum et volgo; Rackham 1963, 4:290-93).

Use in Worship

  • Pausanias Descr. 8.42.11 (pouring oil over sacrifices); 10.24.6 (anointing a stone near the grave of Achilles’ son).
  • Virgil Aen. 6.212–234: olive boughs and bowls of oil (fuso cratores olivo) used in a funeral ceremony (Fairclough 1918, 1:548-49).

Use as a Symbol of Triumph and Honor

  • Pliny Nat. 15.20 "The majesty of Rome has bestowed great honour on the olive-tree (oleae) by decorating our calvary squadrons with wreaths of olive on July 15, and also when they are celebrating a minor triumph. Athens also crowns victorious athletes with olive wreaths (olea), and Greece the victors at Olympia with wreaths of wild olives" (oleastro; Rackham 1963, 4:300-301).

Recognition of Oil's Medicinal Value

  • Pliny Nat. 15.19 "Olive oil (oleo) has the property of imparting warmth to the body and protecting it against cold, and also that of cooling the head when heated" (Rackham 1963, 4:300-301; cf. Hippocrates Acut. 65).
  • Pliny Nat. 23.34-39: Pliny lists a great variety of medicinal remedies involving olive oil or the various parts of the olive plant, either alone or in combination with other treatments. For example: sores are healed by chewing olive leaves and applying them; headaches are treated with a liniment of olive leaves and oil; the juice of the leaves is a common ingredient in salves; the ash of olive wood, mixed with axle-grease, cures tumors; white olives are used to treat burns.
  • Columella Rust. 7.5.18: Broken legs of both humans and sheep are wrapped in wool soaked with oil and wine and then bound in splints.
  • Hippocrates Nat. mul. 7: A disease of the uterus is treated with Egyptian oil (elaion) soaked in wool (Potter 2012, 202-3).

Biblical Intertextuality

14b Presbyters Informal and Formal Community Leaders In the OT, the term can refer to the leaders of a community, e.g., Ru 4:2: "the elders (G = presbuteroi; M = zqnym) of the city." A key passage is Moses' selection of 70 elders to help him lead the Israelites.

The title "presbyters / elders" is given frequently to official Jewish leaders in the Gospels and Acts, named often alongside the chief priests and scribes (e.g., Mk 14:43; Acts 4:23). The "presbyters / elders" sent by a centurion to Jesus in Lk 7:3 may reflect a more informal use of the term.

The term is used in several NT books to designate church leaders (e.g., Acts 14:23; 15:2; Tt 1:5; 2Jn 1; 3Jn 1; see especially the same phrase “presbyters of the church” in Acts 20:17). A group of presbyters helped to lead the first Jerusalem church (e.g., Acts 15:2).  Paul and Barnabas appoint presbyters in their churches (Acts 14:23), as does Paul's co-worker (Tt 1:5).  1Tm 5:18 lists preaching (logos) and teaching as two of the duties of a presbyter; cf. the literal reference in to men older in age.

The terms "presbyter" and "bishop" (episkopos) are not always clearly distinguished: in Paul's letters, the Ephesian presbyters are also called episkopoi. Both terms have a broader literal meaning (presbyter = "elder" in terms of age; episkopos = "overseer") and it is not always clear when the term is to be taken in its broader literal sense and when it refers to a specialized office of the church. See also →Ecclesiastical vocabulary among the first christian communities: episkopoi, presbuteroi, and diakonoi.

14b let them pray Prayers for Healing The OT records several prayers for healing.

  • 1Kgs 17:20–22: Elijah prays for the life of the widow's son.
  • 2Kgs 20:2–6: Hezekiah's prayer and healing (cf. the parallel in Is 38).
  • Sir 38:1-15: Prayer for healing (vv 9, 14) are combined with praise for and recommendation of the skills of the physician.

The Psalmist often prays for healing.

  • Ps 6:2 (3): "Have pity on me, Lord, for I am weak; heal (G: iaomai; M: rp’) me, Lord, for my bones are shuddering."
  •  Ps 30:2 (3) [G-29:3]: "O Lord, my God, I cried out to you for help and you healed me" (G: iaomai; M: rp’).

16a Confess the failings to one another ...so that you may be healed: Confession of Sin in Scripture Confession of sin took place in a variety of contexts.

Old Testament

  • Confessing sin when offering a sacrifice (Lv 5:1-6).
  • Confessing a sin committed against another, Nm 5:7: "If a man or a woman commits any offense against another person...that person shall confess (G= exagoreuô; M: hitpa‘al of ydh) the wrong that has been done..."
  • The high priest confesses the sins of the people, Lv 16:21: Aaron confesses the iniquities of the Israelites on the Day of Atonment.
  • Confession to the Lord is necessary for healing, Ps 32:3-5 [G-Ps 31:3-5]: “Because I kept silent, my bones wasted away…Then I declared (G= gnôrizô; M = hip‘il of yd‘) my sin to you…and you took away the guilt of my sin."

New Testament

  • The Gospel traditions records the tradition of public confession of sins as part of John's baptism (Mt 3:6).
  • 1Jn 1:9 links confession and forgiveness of sin without specifying a context: "If we confess (homolegeô) our sins (hamartias) he is faithful and just, and will forgive our sins..."

Reception

Comparison of Versions

13a Someone among you is suffering A Different Latin Reading

  • Bede Ep. cath.(Hurst 1985, 60; Hurst 1983, 220-21) and Ps.-Hilary of Arles Tract. Iac. (col. 81) punctuate the passage differently and read "et" for "est." thus reading: "Is anyone of you suffering? Let him pray with a quiet mind and sing psalms" (oret aequo animo et psallat).
  •   Valla Coll. ad loc. (262) andErasmus Annot. Ep. Iac. ad loc. (424) also know the above reading, and reject is as corrupt, restoring it to be more in line with the Greek: "Is anyone of you suffering? Let him pray. Is anyone contented? Let him sing."

Liturgies

13–20 Use in Lectionary

  • RML : Saturday, Week 7, Year 2.
  • RCL : Proper 21, Year B.

Christian Tradition

13b sing psalms Singing at Liturgy The tradition interprets James' word for sing praise (G = psallô; V = psallo) as referring to singing during a worship service.

  • Bede Ep. cath. ad loc. notes that James has just admonished those who are sad and suffering to avoid complaining against one another (Jas 5:9). Rather, they should gather together and church and pray that God send the grace of his consolation. He then directly addresses his readers, "You yourselves also drive away the harmful disease of sadness (nocivam maestitiae pestem) from your heart by the frequent sweetness of psalm-singing" (psalmodiae; Hurst 1985, 60-61; Hurst 1983, 221).
  • John Chrysostom Hom. Heb. 4.7 censures his congregations for their public "wailing," "groaning," "howling" and other "unseemly behavior" (including the hiring of professional mourners) for Christians who have passed away. Such behavior causes non-believers to laugh at Christians who supposedly believe in resurrection. The Christian should not fear death, but regard it as the victory over life's struggles and the beginning of eternal glory in heaven. The Church encourages this joyful attitude by including the singing of hymns and psalms at the funeral (quoting Jas 5:13 as an example of singing joyfully; NPNF1 14:385-87; PG 63:42-43).
  • Newman "Excitements" understands “praying” and “singing psalms” as worship in the Church , and suffering and being in good spirits (he translates as “merry”) as various emotional states (“excitements of the mind").  The fixed worship service offers stability to those whose minds are unstable either due to worldly distractions or an excess of religious enthusaism.

14c in the name of the Lord Reference to Consecrating the Oil OR Invoking the Lord's Name

  • Bede Ep. cath. ad loc. “For what he [James] says, ‘with oil in the name of the Lord,’ means with oil consecrated (consecrato) in the name of the Lord or at least that when they anoint the sick person they ought to invoke the name of the Lord over him (nomen domini super eum invocare) at the same time" (Hurst 1985, 62; Hurst 1983, 221).
  • Gloss. Ord. the interlinear gloss to "nomine" reads "nomen domini invocetur" (1301-2).

15b the Lord will raise him up Oil and Eschatological Salvation / Resurrection Several early Christian texts connect olive oil with the tree of life in the Garden of Eden, and thus with future eternal life:

  • Gos. Phil. 73:16-18 “The tree of life, however, is in the middle of the garden (paradeisos). It is an olive tree, and from it comes chrism, and from chrism comes resurrection" (anastasis; Meyer 2007, 178; Layton 1989, 188); cf. Origen Cels. 6.27: report of a group whose members profess, “I have been anointed with white ointment (chrismati leukôᵢ) from the tree of life” (Chadwick 1965, 342).
  • Ps.-Clem. Rec. 1.45.5 “Him [Christ] first God anointed with oil which was taken from the wood of the tree of life (hunc primum pater oleo perunxit, quod ex ligno vitae fuerat sumptum): from that anointing therefore He is called Christ. Thence, moreover, He Himself also, according to the appointment of His Father, anoints with similar oil (simili oleo perunguet) every one of the pious when they come to His kingdom, for their refreshment after their labours, as having got over the difficulties of the way; so that their light may shine, and being filled with the Holy Spirit, they may be endowed with immortality" (inmortalitate donentur; ANF  8:89; Rehm and Strecker 1992, 34). Cf. Gos. Nic. 19: Adam sends Seth in search of oil from Paradise to heal him, but he will not receive it until Christ descends to the underworld . See also Peritestamental Literature 5:14c-15; Theology 5:15c.

16a Confess [your] failings to one another Interpretations and Applications

  • Calvin Comm. Iac. ad loc. links the two admonitions of this verse: when one Christian confesses his faults to a fellow Christian, this knowledge helps the fellow Christian to pray a more specific and effective prayer of intercession for the one confessing (Owen 1849, 358; Reuss and Erichson 1896, 432).
  • A.A. 1984: Alcoholics' Anonymous practice of group members honestly sharing their failings with one another was inspired by Jas 5:16, "Therefore, confess your sins to one another and pray for one another, that you may be healed" (128).

16a Confessing to Priests or Laity? The tradition is divided on whether James refers to confessing sins to priests or to laypeople.

Confession to a Priest

  • Peter Lombard Sent. 4.17.3 (94) "But that it is necessary to confess to priests (sacerdotibus confiteri oporteat) is proven (comprobatur) not only by the authority of James, 'Confess your sins to each other,' etc., but also by many testimonies of others" (Silano 2010, 4:99; Collegii Bonaventurae 1981, 2:348). Similarly, Hugh of St. Victor De sacr. 2.14.1.
  • Aquinas ST Supp. 8.1 also understands James' admonition to refer to priests; arguing that James presupposes Jesus' divine institution of penance when he gave priests, in the person of the apostles, the power to forgive sins (referencing Jn 20:23). ST Supp 6.6 adds that the sacrament was promulgated by James (a Iacobo promulgatum), but instituted by God (sed a Deo institutionem habuit). But see ST Supp. 8.3 (below).
  • Other authors cite Jas 5:16a as a proof-text for the sacrament of Penance: Nicholas of Lyra Post. ad loc. (col. 1303); Albert Par. an. 40  (508).

Confession to One Another

  • Augustine of Hippo Tract Ev. Jo. 58.5 takes this as a general admonition that Christians should pray for one another, and forgive one another's sins, following the example of Christ who humbly washed the feet of the disciples (NPNF1 7:307; Willems 1954, 475); cf. Augustine of Hippo Ep. 153.10; Bede Hom. Ev. 2.5.150.
  • Bede Ep. cath. ad. loc. "However, in this statement there ought to be made this distinction, that we confess our daily and minor sins (cotidiana leuiaque peccata) to another as peers (alterutrum coaequalibus) and believe that we are saved by their daily prayer; in turn, according to the law, let us make known the uncleanness of more serious leprosy to the priest (sacerdoti) and take care to be purified in the manner and for the length of time his judgment has decreed. (Hurst 1985, 62; Hurst 1983, 222); cf. Bede Hom. Ev. 2.14.57-61. Martin of León Exp. Jac. ad loc., uses Bede's wording, but concludes that daily and minor sins should be confessed to a priest, and graver sins to an abbot or bishop (abbati, vel episcopo; col. 212). 
  • Gloss. Ord.: Bede's teaching is quoted in an interlinear gloss (cols. 1303-4).
  • Peter Lombard Sent. 4.17.4.7 (95), also quotes Bede's teaching, specifying that Bede refers to a distinction between venial and mortal sins (venialium et mortalium). "Venial sins may be confessed to an equal, but the graver ones to a priest."  Venial sins may be confessed to an equal, "even if there is an abundance of priests." He ends by qualifying, "Yet it is safer and more perfect to reveal both kinds of sins to priests and to seek medicinal counsel from those to whom the power of loosing and binding was granted." (Silano 2010, 4:103; Collegii Bontaventurae 1981, 2:353); cf. Sent. 4.16.1 (86).
  • Aquinas ST Supp. 8.3 : Referring to the authority of Bede and Peter Lombard, Thomas concludes "a man does not need to confess his venial sins to a priest," (non oportet quod venialia aliquis sacerdoti confiteatur) since a person is not separated from God or from the sacraments by venial sins. Confession to a layperson (confessio laico), nevertheless, "is a sacramental (sacramentale), although it is not a perfect sacrament, and since it proceeds from charity, it has a natural aptitude to remit sins (natum est veniale remitti; English Dominicans 1947, 5:2584).
  • Duns Scotus Quaest. Lib. Sent. ad 4.17.1  denies that Jas 5:16a refers to the sacrament of penance: it rather encourages lay Christians to confess their sins to one another (Wadding 1894, 518-19).
  • Erasmus Annot. Ep. Iac. ad loc. reads paraptômata,  which, he argues, should be translated as errors (errata) instead of sins (peccata, as in V); so also Estius Comm. ep. cath. ad loc. (4381). "For he refers to daily offenses  (quotidianis offensis) of Christians among themselves, which he wishes to reconcile without delay. Otherwise, if he were referring to confession, which we say is part of the sacrament of penance, he would not have added allêlois, that is, 'to one another,' but rather 'to the priests'" (sacerdotibus; van Poll-van de Lisdonk 2014, 426).
  • Bonhoeffer Leben ch. 5 sees this passage as giving authority to all Christians to hear and forgive one anothers' sins. Humble confession to to a fellow Christian overcomes the central sin of pride and leads to true fellowship and community. True community is impossible as long Christians hide their sins from one another. Confession to another helps the Christian to avoid the self-deception that might come from confessing only to God and makes God's forgiveness more concrete (Bloesch and Burtness 1996, 108-18; Müller and Schönherr 1987, 93-102).

Further Views

  • Conc. Cab. 33 recognizes that some say that sins ought to be confessed only to God, but others believe they are to be confessed to a priest. It apparently teaches that confession to priests was instituted by James: "according to the institution of the apostle"[quotation of Jas 5:15]. And so confession which is made to God cleanses sins: but that which is made to the priest, teaches us how these same sins are cleansed" (Palmer 1959, 157; Werminghoff 1906, 280). Reproduced in Burchard of Worms Decr. 20.145, with the added gloss that private confession is practiced by the Greeks, but confession to the priest is particed by the "whole holy Church" (tota sancta Ecclesia; 1011).
  • Suarez Disp. 35.1 recognizes that not all theologians are convinced that James refers to priests, but on the authority of the Conc. Cab. and theologians such as Bonavanture, he judges that the passages "is not to be despised" (contemnendum; Berton 1861, 734).
  • Caesarius of Arles Serm. 67.1-2 applies the passage to the duty of his congregation to pray for those who practice public penance (paenitentia publica), including the wearing of a hairshirt (Mueller 1973, 1:318-20; Morin 1953 1:286-87); cf. also the more general discussion of the passage in Serm. 59.1 [adapted from Augustine]).
  • Estius Comm. ep. cath. ad loc. notes three different interpretations, all of them in some manner probable (aliquo modo probabiles): (1) Christians confessing their sins to those whom they have offended (he compares Mt 5:23-24); (2) Christians confessing venial sins to one another, asking for advice, and praying for one another; (3) reference to sacramental confession to priest (4382-83).

Reformed Interpretation and Catholic Response

  • Luther Beicht. 2 argues that the passsage cannot refer to confession to the clergy, since it clearly says, "confess your sins to one another"—meaning that any Christian my hear the confession of another. In particular, it means that a Christian should confess his sin to one whom he has offended (WA 8:155-56). Reformed confessions apply the verse to confessing to the person whom one has offended (WCF 15.6; Helv. Conf. II 14.7).
  • Calvin Inst. Rel. 3.4.6 insists that this passage contradicts the Roman Catholic sacrament of confession to a priest only. Rather James advises Christians to confess shortcomings to one another, receive mutual advice, and pray for one another.
  • Eck Ench. 8 holds that James "announces (annuciavit) here the command of God (praeceptum Dei) concerning the confessing of sin" (119). Responding to the Protestant argument that the passage refers to confessing sins to one another in general, he admits that James is not precise in naming the one to whom confession is due, but only because Christ had already indicated who should absolve sinners (123-24).
  • Conc. Trid. Paen. ch. 5 (DzH 1679) references Jas 5:16 in holding that the Lord instituted "complete confession of sins (integram peccatorum confessionem), but for Jesus' institution of the sacrament of penance, it references John 20:23 ( Conc. Trid. Paen. 1 [DzH 1670]; see also Conc. Trid. Paen. 6, referencing Mt 18:18 and Jn 20:23 on priests and bishops as ministers of penance).

16c Greatly prevails the prayer of a righteous [man] at work What Makes Prayer Prevail? The passage has drawn many comments on what makes prayer effective.

Encouragement to Pray for the Intercession of the Saints

  • The Orthodox Dositheos Conf. Dos. 8 teaches that one should pray for the intercession of the saints since God listens to the righteous rather than sinners (CCFCT 1:619; Karmirês 1986, 2:751); so too Eck Ench. 15 (180). See also the application of Jas 5:14-15 to the doctrine of the intercession of the saints: Cassian Coll. 20.8.4.
  • Calvin Comm. Iac. ad loc. "God does not hear the ungodly (impios); nor is access to God open, except through a good conscience: not that our prayers are founded on our own worthiness, but because the heart must be cleansed by faith (fide purgatum cor habere oportet) before we can present ourselves before God" (Owen 1849, 359; Reuss and Erichson 1896, 433).

Js 5:16 and Luther's Theology of Prayer

  • Luther Tischr. no. 5565 judges Jas 5:16 as "one of the best verses in that epistle" (LW 54:454; WA TR 5:245). Here he cites Monica's prayers for her son Augustine as an example of effective prayer.
  • The prayer of the righteous can change God's mindLuther Lect. Gen. ad Gn 19:21-22 held that God commanded Christians to pray, and he promised to hear their prayers. He thus believes that an earnest prayer can change God's mind. Commenting on Lot's intercession for the town of Zoar, Luther writes, "It was God's will that the city of Zoar should be destroyed together with the others; but because Lot intercedes for it, God changes his will and does what Lot wants" (mutat voluntatem Deus, et facit, quod Loth vult). The text teaches, "Lot's prayer does this; it compels God (ea cogit Deum) not to carry out His wrathful will. God permits it to be broken and does the will of those who fear Him." If one doubts one's own worthiness in prayer, it is ineffective. Thus "you should not look at your unworthiness; you should look at God's command (mandatum Dei) and not debate whether you are worthy or not. But you should hold fast the promise that the Lord wants to do the will of those who fear Him" (Dominus velit facere voluntatem timentium se). Such examples teach that Christians should "pray boldly and with confidence (animose et confidenter oremus). If He does not give what we are asking for, He will nevertheless give something that is better; for prayer cannot be in vain (non enim oratio potest frustra esse), as James too, states, 'The prayer of a righeous man avails much if it is persistent,' that is, earnest and ardent (seria et intenta). For God cannot despise a righteous man and all his works" (contemnere iustum et universa opera eius; LW 3:290-92; WA 43:83-84).
  • Prayer must be persistent. In his comments on Mt 7:7, Luther Comm. Serm. Mt. ad Mt 7:7-11 cites Jas 5:16 as a motivation to remain persistent in prayer, even when it seems that God's answer is delayed. "For you have his Word, and He will have to say, 'All right, then, you may have what you want'" (LW 21:234; WA 32:493).
  • A prayer of faith is not always bold and confident. Luther Lect. Gen. ad Gn 43:11-14 refers to Jacob's prayer in Gn 43:14 as an example of the "prayer of faith" (Jas 5:15a) that is not always outwardly bold and confident. "His reliance on the promise is very weak (infirmiter), for he laments and mourns pitifully. But since a spark and the unutterable sobbing (Rom 8:26) of faith still remain, he does not despair (non desperat) but prays."  Luther admonishes, "we should accustom ourselves to pray, even though we are weak in faith." He supports this advice with a quotation of Jas 5:13, 'Is anyone among you suffering? He should pray....."  (LW 7:324-26; WA 44:540-41).

Fervent Prayer is Effective

  • WCF 21.3 cites this passage in support of its teaching on fervency in prayer (632).

The Moral Efforts of the One Praying Make Prayer Effective

  • The Gazan hermits Barsanuphius and John teach that the moral efforts of the one praying (e.g., wrestling with temptation, living a more ascetic life, enduring trials; e.g., Barsanuphius and John Ep. 94, 191, 198).

Both the One Praying and the One Receiving Prayer Influence its Effectiveness

  • Origen Fr. 1 Reg. fr. 5 "The Word (logos) shows that even if a prophet and a righteous person pray for one another, [the one praying] is not heard, unless that one [the person prayed for] shows repentance by his works (ergôᵢ deixêᵢ tên metanoian). For in this way "the powerful prayer of a righteous person is made effective" (Jas 5:16) through the [repentance of] the one sinning. In order for the matter to be brought to a conclusion, it is necessary for both to work together, both the prayer of the righteous one, and the work (ergon) of the one repenting (Klostermann 1901, 297).
  • Maximus the Confessor Quae. Thal. 57.2: Maximus responds to the question, "What is the meaning of 'prevail'" in Jas 5:16c ? "I know of two ways in which the "suppliction of a righteous man" is "rendered effective." The first is whenever the one praying combines his supplication to God with the keeping of the commandments (meta tôn kat' entolên ergôn), not allowing his supplication to fall from his tongue as mere words and the empty echo of speech, lest it remain inactive (argên) and insubstantial (anupostaton), but rather as active (energon) and living, being animated by the observance of the commandments. For the substance (hupostasis) of prayer and supplication is quite clearly its fulfillment through the virtues....The second way is when the one who needs the prayer of the righteous man undertakes and performs the works of prayer (ta erga tês euchês), that is, when he corrects his former way of life and thereby gives strength to the supplication of the righteous man (tên deêsin ischuran tou dikaiou poioumenos), fortifying it through  his own upright manner of life" (Constas 2018, 399-400; Laga and Steel 1990, 2:23-25). The Ps.-Andreas Catena ad loc. quotes Maximus' entire lengthy answer (Cramer 1844, 8:37-38).
  • Ps.-Oecumenius Comm. Ep. Cath. ad loc. "The prayer of the righteous prevails, when the one for whom he prays cooperates (sumprattei), through his spiritual suffering (kakôseôs pneumatikês), with the one who prays. For when others pray for us, and we devote ourselves to luxuries (spatalais), to indulgences (anesesi), and to an undisciplined life, we unloosen (ekluomen) by this the intensity (suntonon) of the prayer of the one who is exerting himself for us" (col. 508).
  • Palamas Hom. 31.17 comments similarly on Jas 5:15c, "But you must co-operate (dei de kai humas sunergein) with the prayers made on your behalf by changing your way of life, making confession, giving alms, and other works of repentance" (dia tôn allôn ergôn tês metanoias; Veniamin 2009, 250).

Theology

14f pray over him …in the name of the Lord, Sacramentology: Form of the Sacrament. In the Roman Catholic tradition, the prayer said during the anointing is understood as the "form" (forma) of the sacrament:

  • Conc. Flor. Exs. Deo "'Through this holy anointing and his most pious mercy, may the Lord pardon for whatever offenses you have committed by sight,'" [said during the anoining of the eyes; similar prayer for each of the anointings on other parts of the body] (DzH 1324; cf. Aquinas ST Suppl. 29.8 ; Conc. Trid. Unc. 1 [DzH 1695]). The traditional focus of the sacrament was thus on the pardoning of sins. 
  • Rit. Rom. An.: After Vatican II the reformed rite calls for just one prayer, said as the forehead and hands are anointed, "Through this holy anointing may the Lord in his love and mercy help you with the grace of the Holy Spirit. May the Lord who frees you from sin save you and raise you up" (110). The adapted wording is closer to Jas 5:15. Paul VI Sacr. Unct. explains, "We thought fit to modify the sacramental formula in such a way that, in view of the words of Saint James, the effects of the sacrament might be better expressed (effectus sacramentales satius exprimerentur; cf.CCC 1513).

14b Presbyters Sacramentology: Ministers

  • Conc. Flor. Exs. Deo "The minister of this sacrament is the priest" (sacerdos; DzH 1324).
  • Conc. Trid. Unc. 3  “the proper ministers (proprii ministri) of this sacrament are the presbyters (presbyteros) of the Church" (DzH 1697). Canon 4 rejects the Reformed understanding that the presbyters are not priests (sacerdotes) but senior members of each community" (DzH 1719).
  • See also CCC 1516; CIC 1003.1.

15c they will be forgiven him Sacramentology: Effects of the Anointing of the Sick.

Traditional Teaching

  • Conc. Flor. Exs. Deo "The effect is the healing of the mind and, as far as it is good for the soul, of the body as well" (effectus vero est mentis sanatio et, in quantum animae expedit, ipsius enim corporis; DzH 1325).
  • Conc. Trid. Unc. 2 quotes Jas 5:15 to identify "the reality (res) and effect (effectus) of this sacrament." The Council adds the explanation, "For the reality is the grace (gratia) of the Holy Spirit, whose anointing takes away the sins, if there be any still to be expiated, and also the remains of sin (pecatti reliquas); it comforts and strengthens the soul (animam alleviat et confirmat) of the sick person by awakening in him great confidence in the divine mercy (fiduciam excitando); supported by this, the sick bears more lightly the inconveniences and trials of his illness, and resists more easily the temptations of the devil, who lies in wait for his heel [cf. Gn 3:15]; at times it also restores bodily health (sanitatem corporis), when it is expedient for the salvation of the soul" (ubi saluti animae expedierit; DzH 1696).

Vatican II Reform

Reflecting a the changed approach after Vatican II, CCC 1520-23 speaks of four effects:

  • 1520: A particular gift of the Holy Spirit: "the first grace of this sacrament is one of strengthening, peace and courage to overcome the difficulties that go with the condition of serious illness (aegritudinis gravis) or the frailty of old age. This grace is a gift of the Holy Spirit, who renews trust and faith in God and strengthens against the tempations of the evil one, the temptation to discouragement and anguish in the face of death. This assistance from the Lord by the power of his Spirit is meant to lead the sick person to healing of the soul, but also of the body if such is God's will (si talis est Dei voluntas). Furthermore, "if he has committed sins, he will be forgiven" (Jas 5:15c).
  • 1521: Union with the passion of Christ. "By the grace of this sacrament the sick person receives the strength and gift of uniting himself more closely to Christ's Passion: in a certain way he is consecrated (consecratur) to bear fruit by configuration to the Savior's redemptive Passion. Suffering (dolor), a consequence of original sin, acquires a new meaning; it becomes a participation (participatio) in the saving work of Jesus." Cf. Conc. Vat. II. Lum. Gent. 11 "By the sacred anointing of the sick and the prayer of her priests the whole Church commends the sick to the suffering and glorified Lord, asking that He may lighten their suffering and save them; she exhorts them, moreover, to contribute to the welfare of the whole people of God by associating themselves freely with the passion and death of Christ."
  • 1522: An ecclesial grace. "The sick who receive this sacrament, 'by freely uniting themselves to the passion and death of Christ,' 'contribute to the good of the people of God (Conc. Vat. II. Lum. Gent. 11.2). By celebrating this sacrament the Church, in the communion of the saints, intercedes for the benefit of the sick person, and he, for his part, through the grace of this sacrament, contributes to the sanctification of the Church and to the good of all men for whom the Church suffers and offers herself through Christ to God the Father."
  • 1533: A preparation for the final journey. "If the sacrament of anointing of the sick is given to all who suffer from serious illness and infirmity, even more rightly is it given to those at the point of departing this life; so it is also called sacramentum exeuntium (the sacrament of those departing; referencing Conc. Trid. Unc. 3 [DzH 1698]). The Anointing of the Sick completes our conformity to the death and Resurrection of Christ, just as Baptism began it. It completes the holy anointings that mark the whole Christian life: that of Baptism which sealed the new life in us, and that of Confirmation which strengthens us for the combat of this life. This last anointing fortifies the end of our earthly life like a solid rampart (firmo praesidio) for the final struggles before entering the Father's house."

Context

Biblical Intertextuality

10 an example ...of suffering and of patience: Persecution of the Prophets James assumes his readers' familiarity with the hardships of the prophets (e.g., Jer 1:17-19; Am 7:10-15). In the NT, the persecution of the prophets is a standard trope (Mt 5:12, Mt 23:34-37; Lk 13:33; Acts 7:52; 1Thes 2:14-15; Heb 11:32-38), that can take on an anti-Jewish flavor (e.g., Acts 7:52; 1Thes 2:14-15). The NT and early Christian adversus Iudaeos literature polemically link the "Jewish" persecution of the prophets and the killing of Jesus (e.g., 1Thes 2:14-15; Barn. 5.11; Justin Dial. 93.4). See also Peritestamental Literature 5:10a.

12b do not swear Prohibition on Swearing: Biblical Background and Comparison with Gospel Version

Old Testament Background

Ancient Israelites followed the common ancient practice of calling on divine powers to verify or strengthen the truth of a human statement (Ancient Texts 5:12b). 

  • Oaths before God are part of legal proceedings when there are no witnesses (Ex 22:9–10). 
  • Curses often accompanied oaths to ensure that they were kept (e.g., 1Sm 14:24). 

Swearing in the Lord’s Name

  • Deuteronomy prescribes that oaths should be taken in the name of the Lord (Dt 6:13; 10:20 [M = bšmw tšb‘; G= tôᵢ onomati autou omêᵢ]).

Even God is portrayed as taking oaths, especially in the context of his covenants with Israel:

  • Gn 22:16: The Lord promises to bless Abraham and make his descendants countless: “I swear (M = nšmw; G = omnuô) by my very self—oracle of the Lord.” 
  • Nm 14:28: “‘By my life’—oracle of the Lord—‘I will do to you just what I have heard you say.’” 

Critiques of Swearing Oaths

Condemnation of False Oaths
Condemnation of Lightly-made or Frequent Oaths
  • Sir 23:9–10: “Do not accustom your mouth to oaths (horkos), or habitually utter the Holy Name. Just as a servant constantly under scrutiny will not be without bruises, So one who swears (omnuô) continually by the Holy Name will never remain free from sin.”

Jesus’ and James’ Teaching on Oaths

James’ prohibition on oaths is manifestly drawn from Jesus’ teaching on the topic. Mt 5:34–37 records a more detailed version of Jesus’ teaching. Some scholars judge that James’ simpler version is closer to Jesus’ historical teaching; others see Jas 5:12 as a shortened version of the teaching in Matthew. 

The versions in Matthew and James share the following essential elements.

Absolute Prohibition of Swearing.
  • Mt 5:34: “Do not swear at all” (mê omasai holôs).
  • Jas 5:12b: “Do not swear” (mê omnuete). 

Further Elaboration of the Absolute Prohibition on Swearing Oaths

Both versions of Jesus’ teaching elaborate the prohibition, apparently in reaction to Jewish traditions that avoided swearing in the name of the Lord in favor of swearing by less powers (Jewish Tradition 5:12b). 

  • Mt 5:34: “not by heaven...nor by the earth” (mête tôᵢ ouranôᵢ...mête têᵢ gêᵢ).
  • Jas 5:12: “either by heaven or by earth” (mête ton ouranon mête tên gên).

Matthew adds rationales for not swearing by heaven (“for it is God’s throne”) and earth (“for it is his footstool”); James lacks rationales. Matthew gives two further examples: do not swear by Jerusalem; do not swear by one’s head. These are lacking in James, who gives a blanket prohibition on swearing “with any other oath” (mête allon tina horkon).

Exhortation to Honest Speech that Requires no Oath for Validation
  • Mt 5:37: “Let your word be ‘yes, yes,’ and ‘no, no’” (estô de ho logos humôn nai nai, ou ou). 
  • Jas 5:12c: “Let your ‘yes’ [be] yes and ‘no’ [be] no” (êtô de humôn to nai, nai, kai to ou, ou).

In other words, the validity of one’s words should stand on its own merits, not requiring ouside validation.

Final Warning against Adding Oaths
  • Mt 5:37: “Anything more is from the evil one” (ek tou ponêrou). 

  • Jas 5:12d: “lest you fall under judgment” (hupo krisin).

  • In Matthew, Jesus contrasts his own teaching with what was said “to the ancestors,” “Do not take a false oath (epiorkeô), but make good to the Lord all that you vow” (orkos; Mt 5:33). This is not a direct quotation, but is comparable to teachings in Dt 23:21–23, Lv 19:12, and Nm 30:3–15

Later Allusions

Paul apparently alludes to a version of Jesus’ saying in a discussion in 2Cor 1:17–18: “do I make my plans according to human considerations, so that with me it is ‘yes, yes’ (to nai nai) and ‘no, no’ (to ou ou)? As God is faithful, our word to you is not ‘yes’ and ‘no’” (2Cor 1:17–18). 

Reception

Visual Arts

1:1–5:20 James Depictions of the Author Depictions of James, the author of the epistle, in paintings, statues, manuscript illustrations, engravings, woodcuts, and embroidery on liturgical vestments are particularly prominent in the Middle Ages. A common consensus of the artists is that the author of the epistle is James the Just, leader of the Jerusalem church; he is typically further identified with James, son of Alphaeus, one of Jesus' Twelve (Mk 3:18), and "James the Less" (Mk 15:40). The iconography of James draws particularly on accounts of James recorded in Eusebius of Cesarea Hist. eccl. 23 and Jerome Vir. ill. 2, who in turn draw on accounts from Clement of Alexandria and Hegesipus. See also →James: Introduction

Several prominent features of these portrayals may be noted:

  • Following the tradition that he was the first bishop of Jerusalem, James is often portrayed anachronistically in bishop's vestments.
  • James is often portrayed holding a fuller's club, alluding to the tradition that James was beaten to death with a such a club. Variations show him holding different types of clubs. Another related tradition shows James holding a bow such as one used by hat-makers of the Middle Ages.
  • James bears a striking physical resemblance to his brother Jesus.
  • One artistic tradition, based on accounts found in the preface to the Gloss. Ord. and de Voragine Leg. aur., portrays the infant James as part of a large extended family. According to this legend, St. Anne, mother of the Virgin Mary, had three children named Mary with three different husbands. James and his brothers Joses (Joseph), Simon, and Jude (cf. Mk 6:3) are the sons of Mary (daughter of Anne and Cleophas; cf. Jn 19:25) and Alphaeus (cf. Mk 3:18). James and his brothers are thus cousins of Jesus (son of Mary, daughter of Anne and Joachim) and of St. John the Evangelist and James the Greater (sons of Mary, daughter of Anne and Salomas).

The following images are noteworthy:

  • A painting of James in the Armenian Sts. James Cathedral, Jerusalem: James is dressed in episcopal robes, wears a miter and holds a crozier (Gowler 2014, 54).
  • Blessed James Apostle. In the Stav. Bib. (1093-97) illuminations of the apostle James are at the introduction to the Catholic epistles (f. 197 r→) and at the beginning of his epistle (f. 197 v→.). The apostle stands, holding a book.
  • Apostle James the Less, statue, south portal of Chartres Cathedral, early 13th century.

Anonymous, James Among Other Apostles (sculpture on limestone, early 13th c.),  South Portal, Chartres Cathedral, France

© D.R. Photo Mary Ann Sullivan→ 

James holds a club.

  • Leonardo da Vinci (1495-98), The Last Supper, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan. 

Giampietrino (1495–1549), The Last Supper (oil on canvas, ca. 1520, after Leonardo da Vinci [1452–1519], The Last Supper [1495-1498]),  298 cm x 770 cm

Royal Academy of Arts, London, exhib. Magdalen College, Oxford

Public Domain © Wikicommons→ 

James, who resembles his brother Jesus, is second from his left. This full-scale copy was the main source for the— unfortunate—twenty-year restoration of the original (1978–1998). It includes several lost details such as Christ's feet, the transparent glass decanters on the table, and the floral motifs of the tapestries that decorate the room's interior.  It was first mentioned in 1626 by the author Bartolomeo Sanese as hanging in the Certosa di Pavia, a monastery near Pavia, Italy, but it is unlikely that it was intended for this location. At some point, the upper third of the picture was cut off, and the width was reduced. Giampietrino is thought to have worked closely with Leonardo when he was in Milan. A very fine, full-size copy of this painting, before it was cut down, is installed at Tongerlo Abbey in Westerlo, near Antwerp, Belgium. 

  • Lucas Cranach the Elder (1509), Infant Saint James among his relations, a triptych in the Stadelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt, Germany. The infant Jesus, his mother Mary, and Mary's mother St. Anne are portrayed in the center. To the right is St. Anne's other daughter Mary, her husband Zebedee, and sons John the Evangelist and James the Greater. To the left is another of St. Anne's daughters named Mary with her husband Alphaeus; their children James, Joses (Joseph), Simon, and Jude are in the left and center panels.

Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472–1553), The Holy Kinship, (mixed media on lime, Wittenberg, 1509), Altarpiece, central panel: 100.4 × 121.1 cm; wings: 40 × 120 cm

Städel Museum — 1398, Frankfurt am Main

Public Domain © Wikicommons→

The side and central panels describe a a great hall with blue grey walls and three-colored tiles. In the side panels are depicted the half sisters of Virgin Mary, called after their fathers Mary Cleophas (left) and Mary Salome (right) together with their husbands.

Left panel: St. Mary Cleophas and Alphaeus (with the features of Friedrich the Wise with their two sons, the Apostles St. James the Less (at her breast) and Joseph Justus, called St. Barnabas, as annunciator of the Gospel of Matthew depicted with a book.

Central panel: Joseph, who seems to seems to sleep, the Virgin, dressed in blue with yellow lining, Anna and the Christ Child on her knee, who is stretching out his hand towards an apple given to him by Virgin Mary. Anna's three husbands following de Voragine Leg. aur. are shown in the background in the matroneum: on the left Joachim, who is attracted by the holy women in front of him and whose relation is also shown by the corresponding blue and yellow color of his dress, Cleophas (with the physiognomy and chain of Emperor Maximilian I and Salomas, with the physiognomy of Sixtus Oelhafen von Schöllenbach, secretary of Friedrich III, Maximilian I and Karl V), who are talking to each other. There is an architectural structure by a great stone bench in the foreground of the central panel with two marble columns on the sides, over which is strectched a cloth of gold. On the right column is a tablet with date and signature: [LVCAS CHRONVS FACIEBAT ANNO 1509. The parapet of the matroneum is decorated by a sculptured frieze with dancing putti holding six escutcheons with the six fields of Electorate of Saxony. In the hall are shown the 17 members of the Holy Kinship. In the central panel are shown two more children of Mary Cleophas and Alpheus, the Apostles Simon, patron saint of weavers, dyers, tanners and saddlers and Jude, who went on mission and suffered their martyrdom together and therefore are regularly depicted together.

Right panel: St. Mary Salome and Zebedee (with the features of Frederick III, Elector of Saxony, and his brother Herzog Johann der Beständige). St. Mary Salome, dressed in gold with dark red lining, is combing her son Saint James the Greater and while Saint John the Evangelist is hiding in her dress.

  • Paolo Veronese (Caliari) James as Bishop (1500s). Burghley House Collection, Lincolnshire, UK. The Bridgeman Art Library. James with crozier and miter, holding a book.

Paolo Veronese Cagliari (1528-1888), Saint James, (oil on canvas, ca. 1578), 200 X 85 cm, One of the volets of the organ of the church of San Jacopo, Murano, Venice — the other is a portrait of St. Augustine.

Burghley House Collection, Lincolnshire, UK, © A Graduate of Pomona→

  • Saint James the Less, painting by El Greco (c. 1612), Museo del Greco, Toledo, Spain. 

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El Greco (Domenikos Theotokópoulos) 1541-1614, The Apostle James the Greater, (Oil on canvas, 1610-1614), 100 cm X 80 cm

 Museo de El Greco→ (Toledo, Spain), © Wikicommons, 

James is shown holding a Bible, symbolizing his status as a scriptural writer, in one hand. James is depicted in the Mannerist style with elongated form and without any of the traditional iconographic symbols

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Nicolò Bambini (1651-1736), San Giacomo Minore (Oil on canvas, 1722-1723), Communion of St James (Series of the Twelve Apostles), Presbytery: right wall, center, Saint Stae,Venezia, © Chorus Venezia→ 

The risen Jesus appears to James and breaks bread with him (based on an account recorded in Jerome Vir. ill. 2, said to be drawn from the Gospel according to the Hebrews).

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Angelo de' Rossi (1671 – 1715), Jacobus Minor (Sculpture on marble, 1710-1711), Gli Apostoli, (h: 424 cm), Nef, San Giovanni in Laterano, Roma, © Wikicommons

James holds a book and club.

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James Tissot (French, 1836-1902), James the Lesser, (Opaque watercolor over graphite on gray wove paper, 1886-1894), 30.6 x 23.5 cm, Brooklyn Museum, 00.159.237, © Brooklyn Museum photograph, 2008

James, resembling Jesus, prayers on his knees with outstretched arms. It perhaps reflects Hegesippus' statement that James spent so much time in prayer that his knees were as hard as a camel's.

Eastern Orthodox traditions

  • James the Just, Russian icon, 16th century. Novgorod. James is depicted in episcopal robes and holds a book.

Anonymous, James the Just, (pigments on wood, mid. 16th c.), icon, Novgorod or Moskow, Novgorod

Public Domain © Wikicommons→,

The inscription bearing the name of the saint has disappeared, but the iconography—facial features and beard shape —suggest that the icon is of James. Byzantine art places him among the founding fathers of the Church. As the creator of the first liturgy containing memorial services and the author of the message, which speaks of the healing power of prayer (Jas 5:14-16), he was also worshipped in ancient times as a healer. In Novgorod, James is prayed for the end of the epidemics. In sacred iconography, the representations of James of Jerusalem alone are very rare. We know the icons of Novgorod in which he is represented with other saints: Nicholas the Thaumaturgist, James the brother of God, Ignatius the bearer of God, end of the 15th c.; James the brother of God, Cosmas and Damian, 2nd quarter of the 16th c. The icon comes from the best workshops in Moscow or Novgorod.

  • Martyrdom of James the Just. Illustration from the Menologion of Basil II. (PG 117:6-612). Late 10th, early 11th c. AD. Vatican Library. Vat.gr. 1613. Image 131.→  

For discussion of visual depictions, see Gowler 2014, 53-62; Bedford 1911.

Liturgies

14b let them pray over him Prayers and Anointing of the Sick Many liturgical texts contain prayers for consecrating oil. In general, the oil for anointing the sick is pure olive oil (G: elaion; L: oleum); chrism or myron (oil mixed with perfume; G: chrisma, muron; L: unguentum) is used for post-baptismal anointings.

Prayers before Anointing (Blessing the Oil)

The Sacramentary of Sarapion is a mid-fourth century Egyptian liturgical book.

  • Sacr. Sarap. 17, Entitled: “Prayer for Oil of the Sick (elaion nosountôn) or for Bread or for Water”: “We call upon you who has all authority and power, the Saviour of all people, Father of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. And we pray that you send forth healing power (dunamis iatikê) of the only-begotten upon this oil (elaion), that it may become for those who are anointed with it, or partake of these your created elements, for throwing off of every disease and every sickness (apobolê pasês nosou kai pasês malakias), for a remedy (alexipharmakon) against every demon, for a banishment of every unclean spirit, for a casting out of every evil spirit, for a driving out of every fever and shivering fit and every illness (astheneia; cf. ), for good grace and forgiveness of sins, for a medicine of life and salvation (pharmakon zôês kai sôterias), for health (hugeia) and wholeness of soul (holoklêria psuchês), body, and spirit, and for complete bodily health and strength. Master, let every satanic energy, every demon, every plot of the adversary, every blow, every scourge, every suffering, every pain, or slap or shaking, or evil phantom fear your holy name which we have now called upon and the name of your only-begotten. And let them depart from the inner and the outer being of these your servants, that his name may be glorified, he who was crucified and rose again for us, who has take up our diseases and our infirmities (nosoi kai astheneia), even Jesus Christ who is also coming to judge the living and the dead, because through him be to you the glory and the power in the holy Spirit both now and to all the ages of ages. Amen” (Barrett-Lenard 1993, 47-49; Wobbermin 1899, 13).

The sacramentary also has two other prayers for blessing oil:

  • Sacr. Sarap. 15: Prayer for the oils (aleimma) of those being baptized.
  • Sacr. Sarap. 16: Prayer for the chrism (chrisma) for post-baptismal anointing.
  • In addition, the sacramentary also has general prayers for the sick (Sacr. Sarap.21) and for the laying on of hands on the sick (cheirothesia nosountôn; Sacr. Sarap. 30).

The Testamentum Domini is a church order from the 4th-5th centuries, originally written in Greek and preserved in Syriac.

  • Test. Dom. 1.24 “O Christ…who is the healer of every sickness and of every suffering;  who did give the gift of healing to those who were counted worthy of this by you; send on this oil (mšḥ’), which is the type of your fatness, the delivering [power] of your good compassion, that it may deliver those who labour and heal those who are sick, and sanctify those who return, when they approaoch to your faith; for you are mighty and [to be] praised for ever and ever" (Cooper and McClean 1902, 78 trans. mod.; Rahmani 1899, 48).

The Apostolic Tradition is a church order dating to the first part of the 3rd century.

  • Hippolytus of Rome Trad. ap 5 “As, sanctifying this oil (oleum), you give, God, health (sanitatem) to those using and receiving [it], whence you have anointed (uncxisti) kings, priests, and prophets, so also may it afford strengthening (confortatio) to all tasting [it] and health to all using it" (Bradshaw, Johnson, Philips 2002, 13; Botte 1968, 54). Cf. the general prayer over oil in Can. Hipp. 3.
  • Apos. Con. 8.29.1–3: "Concerning water and oil (elaion)": “Let the bishop bless (eulogeô) the oil. But if he be not there, let the presbyter bless it, the deacon standing by. But if the bishop be present, let the presbyter and deacon (presbuteros...diakonos) stand by, and let him say thus, 'O Lord of hosts, the God of powers, the creator of the waters, and the supplier of the oil…who has given water for drink and for cleansing, and oil to give man a cheerful and joyful countenance; do You also sanctify (hagiazô) this water and this oil through your Christ, in the name of him or her that has offered them, and grant them a power to restore health (hugeia), to drive away diseases (nosoi), to banish demons, and to disperse all snares through Christ our hope, with whom glory, honour, and worship be to You, and to the Holy Ghost, for ever. Amen" (ANF 7:494; Funk 1906, 533). See Apos. Con. 27 on blessing chrism.
  • Carol. lit. "Lord God, who have spoken by your apostle James, saying [quotation of Jas 14-15] ; cure (cura), we beseech you, our Redeemer, by the grace of the Holy Spirit, the weakness of this sick man; heal (sana) his wounds, and forgive (dimitte) his sins; drive out (expelle) from him all pains of body and mind, and mercifully restore him to full health, both inwardly and outwardly (plenamque ei interius exteriusque sanitatem); that recovered and healed by the help of you mercy, he may be strengthened to take up again his former duties of piety to you" (Gusmer 1990, 22; PL 78: 234).
  • Sacr. Gel. 1.40 (8th c. AD): A blessing for oil to anoint the sick (ad unguendos infirmos): "Send out, we beg you, Lord, the Holy Spirit, the Paraclete, upon the richness of this oil (in hac pinguidine olei), which you deemed worthy to bring forth from the green tree for restoration of mind and body (ad refectionem mentis et corporis). And may your holy blessing be to all who anoint, taste, and touch protection for body, soul, and spirit, for getting rid of all pains, every sickness (omnem infirmatatem), every disease of mind and body. With this oil you did anoint (uncxisti) priests, kings, and prophets and martyrs; your perfect chrism (chrisma tuum perfectum), blessed by you, O Lord, remaining in our innermost parts of the body (visceribus nostris), in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom you always bring forth all things as good (per quem haec omnia, domine, semper bona creas; Mohlberg 1968, 61). Cf. Sacr. Greg. (PL 78:83).
  • Rit. Rom. An. (rev.) “God of all consolation, you chose and sent your Son to heal the world. Graciously listen to our prayer of faith: send the power of your Holy Spirit, the Consoler, into this precious oil, this soothing ointment, this rich gift, this fruit of the earth. Bless this oil [sign of the cross is made] and sanctify it for our use. Make this oil a remedy for all who are anointed with it; heal them in body, in soul, and in spirit, and deliver them from every affliction. We ask this through our Lord Jesus Christ, your Son, who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever” (93).
  • The contemporary Orthodox prayer of the oil: "O Lord, in your mercy and compassion, you heal the afflictions of our souls and bodies: sanctify now this oil, O Master, that it may bring healing to those who are anointed with it, relief from every passion, from every sicknesss of flesh and spirit, and from all evil; and so that your holy name may be glorified, of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, now and ever, and unto ages of ages" (Meyendorff 2009, 130).

In the 20th century, Anglican, Lutheran, United Church of Christ, and Presbyterian churches have developed rituals involving the use of healing oil (Gusmer 1990, 37-40; Anglicans revived the anointing rite found in the first 1549 Book of Common Prayer, but not in later editions).  

  • Menn. Conf. 8.5 "Prayer for sick may be accompanied by a symbolic anointing with oil by the elders of the church. In response to the prayer of faith, and in accordance with his will, God heals in various ways, through the use of the healing arts, or by direct intervention. When healing does not occur, we believe that God's grace is sufficient. The full redemption of the body will come only at the return of Christ" (referencing Jas 5:14-16 and other texts; CCFCT, 3:680).

Prayers during Anointing

  • Sacr. Greg. "I anoint you with holy oil (oleo sancto) in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, that the unclean spirit may not remain hidden in you, nor in your members, nor in your organs, nor in any joint of your members; rather, through the working of this mystery (operantiem mysterii), may there dwell in you the power (virtus) of Christ, all-high, and of the Holy Spirit. And through this ointment of consecrated oil and our prayer, cured (medicatus) and warmed by the Holy Spirit may you merit to receive your former and even better health" (sanitas; Palmer 1959, 295; PL 78:235).
  • Conc. Flor. Exs. Deo: The traditional Roman Catholic anointing ritual was accompanied by the prayer, “Through this holy anointing (per istam sanctem unctionem) and his most pious mercy, may the Lord pardon you for whatever offenses you have committed by sight etc.” (DzH 1324). Aquinas ST Suppl. Q. 29 a. 8 connects the prayer with Jas 5:15.
  • →Rit. Rom. An.(rev.): The phrasing of the revised Roman Rite ritual is more directly based on Jas 5:15:  [While anointing the hands]: “May the Lord who frees you from sin save you and raise you up" (110).
  • In the Roman Catholic theological tradition, the prayer during anointing is identified as the "form" (forma) of the sacrament (Theology 5:14-15). Bonaventure Comm. IV Sent. 4.23.1.4 notes that there are different versions of the anointing prayer (he contrasts the Gregorian and the Ambrosian), and thus concludes that uniformity in the precise wording is not necessary.
  • The contemporary Orthodox prayer during anointing: "O holy Father, Physician of souls and bodies, who sent your only-begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, who heals every infirmity and delivers from death: heal also your servant (name) from the infirmities of body and soul which afflict him (her), and enliven him (her) with the grace of your Christ; through the prayers of our most-holy Lady, the Theotokos and ever-virgin Mary; through the intercessions of the honorable, bodiless powers of heaven; through the power of the precious and life-giving cross [several other intercessors are named, including "the holy unmercenary physicians, Cosmas and Damian, Cyrus and John, Pateleimon and Hermolaus, Sampson and Diomedes, Photius and Anicetas"]. For you are the fountain of healing, O our God, and to you we give glory, to the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit, now and ever, and unto ages of ages. Amen." (Meyendorff 2009, 138-39). The reading during the first anointing is Jas 5:10-16.

Prayers after Anointing

The revised Roman Rite Ritual of Anointing (→Rit. Rom. An.) offers several options for the prayer after anointing:

  • [A: General] "Father in heaven, through this holy anointing, grant N. comfort in his / her suffering. When he / she is afraid, give him / her courage, when afflicted, give him / her patience, when dejected, afford him / her hope, and when alone, assure him / her of the support of your holy people."
  • [B: General]  “Lord Jesus Christ, our Redeemer, by the grace of your Holy Spirit cure the weakness of your servant N. Heal his / her sickness and forgive his / her sins; expel all afflictions of mind and body; mercifully restore him / her to full health, and enable him / her to resume his / her former duties, for you are Lord for ever and ever." See also Christian Tradition 5:14b.
  •  [C: In extreme or terminal illness]: “Lord Jesus Christ, you chose to share our human nature, to redeem all people, and to heal the sick. Look with compassion upon your servant N., whom we have anointed in your name with this holy oil for the healing of his / her body and spirit. Support him / her with your power, comfort him / her with your protection, and give him / her the strength to fight against evil. Since you have given him / her a share in your own passion, help him / her to find hope in suffering, for you are Lord for ever and ever” (94-96).

Christian Tradition

14f Effect of the Anointing: Physical and Spiritual Healing Two major interpretations of the effect of the anointing ritual in Jas 5:14-15 are evident in the tradition (1) a holistic view, emphasizing both spiritual and physical healing or (2) an emphasis on spiritual healing (forgiveness of sin).

Reference to Both Spiritual and Physical Healing

  •  Caesarius of Arles Serm. 13.3 "he will merit to receive both bodily health (corporis sanitatem) and the remission of his sins" (peccatorum indulgentiam; Mueller 1973, 1:77; Morin 1953, 1:66).  Compare the similar discussion: Serm. 184:5: "to receive, not only bodily health, but also the forgiveness of sins" (remissionem peccatorum; Mueller 1973, 3:482; Morin 1953, 2:751). 
  • Caesarius of Arles Serm. 19.5 "If he does this, he will receive not only bodily health (sanitatem corporis), but also the forgiveness of his sins" (indulgentiam peccatorum). Qualifications, however, are added:  "Bodily sickness is related to health of heart (sanitatem cordis), and God scourges (flagellat) in this world those whom he loves. Even if health returns rather slowly (tardius) to the infirm, let us not murmur against God, but give thanks to Him. He deigns so to chastise (castigare) us by sickness in this world,  in order that He may give us eternal rewards (praemia aeterna) in the future life. Many are sick without harm to themselves, for, while they are well in body (sani sunt corpore), they do not cease to think about robberies and riotous living, but as often as we are ill we do penance (paenitentiam) more, give alms (elimosinas), and attain to eternal rewards. Therefore, whether health comes to the sick quickly or slowly (aut cito aut tarde), let us always be grateful, because He knows what is necessary for us—when it is better for us to be sick and when healthy" (quando aegrotare aut sanos esse conveniat; Mueller 1973, 1:101-2; Morin 1953, 1:90-91).

All three of the above passages are in the context of Caesarius' admonishing people to attend church regularly; he closely links anointing with the reception of the Body and Blood of Christ.

  • Ouen Vit. S. Elig. 2.16  “And he will not only receive health for the body but for the soul (non solum corporis, sed etiam animae sanitatem) and what the Lord promised in the Gospel will be fulfilled saying: ‘For whatever you ask in prayer, you will receive if you have faith’” (Mt 21:22; McNamara 2000, 158; Krusch 1902, 707).
  • Bede Ep. cath. ad loc. "the custom of the Church (ecclesiae consuetudo) holds that those who are sick be anointed with consecrated oil by the presbyters (infirmi oleo consecrato ungantur a presbiteris), with the prayer that goes with this, and they may be cured" (sanentur). In his discussion, Bede also notes the connection between physical illness and sin, citing (Hurst 1985, 61-62; Hurst 1983, 221).
  • Gloss. Ord. ad loc.: The interlinear gloss to "will raise him up" (alleviabit) is "from the sickness of the body" (ab infirmitate corporis; col. 1303). Gloss. Ord. (V) adds marginal glosses, including Origen Hom. Lev. 2.4.5 and John Chrysostom Sac. 3.6, which focus on forgivness of sin.

Spiritual Healing / Forgiveness of Sins is Primary

  • In the earliest known quotation of our passage, Origen Hom. Lev. 2.4.5 comments only on spiritual healing (albeit using a medical allusion), referring to the passage as an example of forgiveness of sin: “And there is still a seventh remission of sins through penance (per poenitentiam remissio peccatorum)….when the sinner washes 'his couch in tears' (cf. Ps 6:7)…when he is not ashamed to make known his sin to the priest of the Lord (sacerdoti Domini indicare peccatum) and to seek a cure (et quaerere medicinam)….What the Apostle James said is fulfilled in this: [quotation of Jas 5:14–15, including the addition “they will place their hands on him”]" (Barkley 1990, 47-48; Baehrens 1920, 296-97).
  • John Chrysostom Sac. 3.6 cites the passage to support the authority of priests to forgive sins after baptism: "They have authority to remit sins" (sugchôrein echousin exousian hamartêmata), not only when they make us regenerate (hotan hêmas anagennôsi), but afterwards too (Neville 1964, 74; Malingrey 1980, 154).
  • Cassian Coll. 20.8.4 cites this passage as a witness to the belief in pardoning of sins through the intercession of the saints (intercessione sanctorum; Ramsey 1997, 699; Petschenig 1886, 562).
  • Aquinas ST Supp. 30.1 on Extreme Unction: "Each sacrament was instituted for the purpose of one principal effect (principaliter ad unum effectum). And since a sacrament causes what it signifies, the principal effect of a sacrament must be gathered from its signification (significatione). Now this sacrament is conferred by way of a kind of medicament (secundum modum cuiusdam medicationis), even as Baptism is conferred by way of washing, and the purpose of a medicament (medicina) is to expel sickness (ad pellendum infirmitatem). Hence the chief object of the institution of this sacrament is to cure the sickness of sin (principaliter hoc sacramentum est institutum ad sanandum infirmitatem peccati)...so Extreme Unction is a spiritual healing or cure (spiritualis sanatio vel medicatio). Therefore just as Baptism is a spiritual regeneration, and Penance, a spiritual resurrection, so Extreme Unction is a spiritual healing or cure" (extrema unctio est quaedum spiritualis sanatio vel medicatio)....Consequently, we must say that the principal effect of this sacrament is the remission of sin (principalis effectus huius sacramenti est remissio peccatorum), as to its remnants, and consequently, even as to its guilt, if it find it." Jas 5:15c is cited as a proof of the argument: "If he be in sins, they shall be forgiven him" (English Dominicans 1947, 5:2659- 2660).
  • Bonaventure Comm. IV Sent. 4.23.1.1 "this sacrament is principally for the cure and alleviation of spiritual illness, namely of venial sin (principaliter est ad curationem et alleviationem infirmitatis spiritualis, scilicet peccati venialis) and per accidens for the cure of bodily illness, by strengthening the soul which directs the body" (Hellman, et al. 2016, 359-60; Collegi S. Bonaventurae 1889, 588).

Physical Healing Only Occurs if it Aids the Spiritual Healing

  • Peter Lombard Sent. 4.23.3 (129) "We read that this sacrement of anointing of the sick was instituted by the Apostles (Hoc sacramentum unctionis infirmorum ab Apostolis institutum legitur [quotation of Jas 5:14-15 follows]. In this passage, it is shown that this sacrament was instituted for a double cause (duplici ex causa institutum), namely, for the remission of sins (ad peccatorum remissionem) and for the relief of bodily infirmity (ad corporalis infirmitatis alleviationem). And so it is established that someone who receives this anointing with faith and devotion is relieved in body and soul (et in corpore et in anima alleviari), so long as it is expedient (expedit) that he should be relieved in both. But if perhaps it is not expedient that he should have bodily health (corporis valetudinem), he acquires in this sacrament that health which pertains to the soul" ( animae sanitatim;Silano 2010, 4:136; Collegii Bonaventurae 1916, 2:391). 
  • Aquinas SCG 4.73.1 "Now the body is the instrument of the soul (corpus est animae instrumentum), and an instrument is for the use of the principal agent: therefore, the disposition of the instrument necessarily must be such as becomes the principal agent. Hence the body is disposed in harmony with the soul (corpus disponitur secundum quod congruit animae). Therefore, from the infirmity of the soul which is sin (peccatum) infirmity sometimes flows into the body (derivatur ad corpus), when the divine judgment so disposes. To be sure, this bodily infirmity is at times useful for the soundness of the soul (utilis est ad animae sanitatem): so far as a man bears bodily infirmity humbly and patiently, and so far as it is reckoned as satisfying punishment (poenam satisfactoriam computatur) for him. At times, also, it tends to hinder spiritual health: so far as bodily infirmity hinders the virtues. Therefore it was suitable to employ some spiritual medicine (spiritualis medicina) against sin, in accord with the fact that bodily infirmity flows out of sin (ex peccato derivatur infirmitas coporalis); indeed, this spiritual medicine cures the bodily infirmity at times, namely, when this is helpful to salvation (expedit ad salutem). And for this the sacrament of extreme unction was established, about which James says [quotation of Jas 5:14-15a]" (Pegis 1957).
  • Palamas Hom. 31.17 writes that anyone who turns to God and his saints is healed physically: "if this would be beneficial for him" (ei sumpherei toutôᵢ) but "always finds (tês de kata psuchên hugeias kai tês tôn hamartêmatôn apheseôs aei epitugchanei) healing for his soul and forgiveness of sin" (Veniamin 2009, 250).

Scholastic Debate on the Type of Sins Forgiven

  • In the scholastic tradition, theologians debated on whether the sacrament was oriented towards the forgiveness of venial sins (e.g., Bonaventure Comm. IV Sent. 4. 23. 1. 1 or the more general "remnants of sin" (reliquias peccati; e.g., Aquinas ST Supp. 30.1). See Suarez Disp. 41.1.1-10 (Berton 1861, 827-31).

Part of a Traditional List of Ways in Which Sins are Forgiven

  • In Origen Hom. Lev. 2.4.5, Jas 5:14-15 is cited as the seventh in a list of ways to attain remission of sins. The others are baptism, martyrdom, giving alms, forgiving those who sin against us (referencing Mt 6:14-15), turning a fellow sinner back to the right path (referencing Jas 5:20), loving much (referencing Lk 7:47 and 1Pt 4:8), and "remission of sins through penance," (per poenitentiam remissio peccatorum) citing the penitential Psalms and quoting Jas 5:14-15 (omitting Jas 5:15b; Barkley 1990, 46-47; Baehrens 1920, 295-96).

Origen's list is found in an adapted and expanded form in Cassian Coll. 20.8. Cassian's list in turn forms the basis for a list in a 7th century Irish work used in the Merovingian Empire, The Penitential of Cummean, an influential manual for confessors that details penances for various sins (cf. Poen. Big. pref.). Another list virtually identical to Cummean's is found in Ps.-Caesarius of Arles Hom. 13. All these works quote Jas 5:14-15, but cite it as an example of the efficacy of intercessory prayer.

  • Cassian Coll. 20.8.4: "Sometimes pardon of sins is also won through the intercession of the holy ones" (impetratur venia delictorum intercessione sanctorum), followed by quotations of 1Jn 5:16 and Jas 5:14-15 (Ramsey 1997, 699; Petschenig 1886, 562).
  • Poen. Com. prol. "The eighth is the intercession of the saints (intercessio sanctorum), as this text states, [quotation of Jas 5:14-15, adding Jas 5:16c: "Powerful indeed is the effective (V: persistent) prayer of a righteous person"]" (McNiell and Gamer 1938, 100; Zemminger 1902, 506).
  • Ps.-Caesarius of Arles Hom. 13 "The eighth is the intercession of the saints, as the text states [abbreviated quotation of Jas 5:14, adding Jas 5:16c]" (col. 1075).
  • A version of the traditional list appears in CCC 1434: "Alongside the radical purification brought about by Baptism or martyrdom they [i.e., Scripture and the Fathers] cite the following as means of obtaining forgiveness of sins: effort at reconciliation with one's neighbor, tears of repentance, concern for the salvation of one's neighbor, the intercession of the saints, and the practice of charity 'which covers a multitude of sins'" (1Pt 4:8; also referencing Jas 5:20).

Proof-text for the Sacrament of Penance

  • Eck Ench. 8 quotes Origen Hom. Lev. 2.4.5 (although attributing it to Cyril of Alexandria) as a testimony for the sacrament of penance (Fraenkel 1979, 122).

14c anointing him with oil Foundational Text for the Sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick? The Council of Trent taught that James "recommended to the faithful and promulgated" (fidelibus commendatum ac promulgatum) the sacrament of "extreme unction" in Jas 5:14-15 (DzH 1695; cf. Theology 5:14c). The exact relationship between this passage and the sacrament, however, has been a subject of controversy within the tradition.

Witness of the Carolingian Councils

Several decrees from the Carolingian era seek to regulate the practice of anointing the sick, perhaps as a response to the custom of lay anointing. Reference is made to Jas 5:14-15:

  • Conc. Cab. (813 AD) can. 48: "According to the example (secundum...documentum) of the blessed apostle James, with whom the decrees (decreta) of the fathers agree, the sick should be anointed by the priests (presbyteris) with oil which is blessed by the bishops (oleo, quod a episcopis benedicitur). [Quotation of Jas 5:14-15]. Medicine (medicina) of this kind, which heals the weaknesses of body and soul (quae animae corporibusque medetur languoribus) is not to be taken lightly" (283).
  • Conc. Pav. (850 AD) ch. 8 states that Jas 5:14-15 commends (commendat) the sacrament (sacramentum; 223).

An Early Reference to Anointing as a Sacrament

  • Peter Damian Serm. 69 cites Jas 5:14 when he lists the anointing of the sick (unctio infirmorum) as the third sacrament (sacramentum). Peter lists a total of 12 (col. 899). The Gloss. Ord. (V) reproduces Peter's quotation (col. 1302).

Instituted by Christ or the Apostles?

Instituted by the Apostles
  • Peter Lombard Sent. 4.23.3 (129): "We read that this sacrament of anointing of the sick was instituted by the Apostles" (Hoc sacramentum unctionis infirmorum ab Apostolis institutum legitur) [quotation of Js 5:14-15 follows] (Silano, 4:136; Collegi Bonaventurae, 2:391). So too Hugh of St. Victor De sacr. 2.15.2; Bonaventure Comm. IV Sent. 4.23.1.2). Bonaventure clarifies his view that the apostles did not institute the sacrament on their own, but were led by the Holy Spirit, referring to Jn 16:12-13, "But when he comes, the Spirit of truth, he will guide you to all truth."
Instituted by Christ
  • Aquinas ST Suppl. 29.3 (= Aquinas Scrip. Sent. 4. d. 23 q. 1 a. 2 qc 3 ): On the question, "Whether this sacrament was instituted by Christ (institutum a Christo)," Thomas responds that there are two opinions. "For some hold that this sacrament and Confirmation were not instituted by Christ Himself, but were left by Him to be instituted by the apostles; for the reason that these two sacraments, on account of the plenitude of grace conferred in them, could not be instituted before the mission of the Holy Ghost in perfect plenitude....others hold that Christ himself instituted all the sacraments, but that He Himself published some, which present greater difficulties to our belief, while he reserved some to be published (promulganda) by the apostles, such as Extreme Unction and Confirmation." Thomas, following his teacher Albert the Great, holds to this latter opinion, explaining, "The Master [Peter Lombard] says it was instituted by the apostles because its institution was made known to us (promulgata) by the teaching of the apostles."

Orthodox Views

  • Jeremias II Rep. Aug. Conf. 7 "The anointing of oil, perhaps, is spoken of by some other apostles, but it is clearly handed down (prodêlôs...paradedotai) by St. James the apostle in his catholic epistle where he says: [quotation of Jas 5:13-15 follows]" (CCFCT 1:415; Karmirês 1986, 1:460). Jeremias II was patriarch of Constantinople.
  • Critopoulos Conf. Faith 13.1-2 "On Holy Unction" (Peri euchelaiou): Critopoulos, later Patriarch of Alexandria, teaches that this sacramental rite (teletê mustikê) takes its origin from Jesus' commandment (Mk 6:13). "And this rite was entrusted (epetrapê) by the apostles to the whole church," quoting Jas 5:14-15. Conf. Faith 13.3 cites Jas 5:15c in support of his view that sickness is often caused by sin (CCFCT 528; Karmirês 1986, 2:543-44).
  • Moghila Orth. Conf. 117: The seventh mystery of the church is the holy oil. "This was instituted (diatetagmenon) by Christ himself [referencing Mk 6:13]....The same was afterwards received by the universal church (holê hê Ekklêsia), as a solemn custom, as appears from the Epistle of James" (referencing Jas 5:14-15; CCFCT 1:609; Karmirês 1986, 2:643).
  • Dositheos Conf. Dos. 15 "the holy oil or sacrament of unction is spoken of in Mark, and is expressly witnessed to by the Lord's brother" (625).

Catholic Denials that James Refers to the Sacrament

  • Cajetan Ep. Pauli et al. Ap. ad loc. "Neither from the words nor from the effect (nec ex verbis, nec ex effectu) do these words speak of the sacramental anointing (sacramentali unctione) of Extreme Unction: but rather of the anointing (unctione) which the Lord Jesus instituted (instituit) in the Gospel to be used by the disciples for the sick. For the text does not speak of one who is sick unto death (infirmatur quis ad mortem), but one who is sick absolutely, and says that the effect is the alleviation of the sick person, and speaks of the remission of sins only conditionally (conditionaliter), while Extreme Unction is given only at the moment of death (articulum mortis) and tends directly (directe tendit) (as its form implies) to the remission of sins. Besides this, James orders that many presbyters be called to pray and then to anoint one sick person, which is foreign (alienum) to the rite of Extreme Unction" (370).  

Reformation Denials that James Refers to a Sacrament

  • Luther Capt. Bab. : After noting that the apostolic authorship of James is disputed, Luther writes, "But even if the apostle James did write it, I still would say, that no apostle has the right on his own authority to institute a sacrament (sua autoritate sacramentum instituere), that is, to give a divine promise (divina promissio) with a sign (signum) attached. For this belongs to Christ alone" (LW 36:118; WA 6:568).
  • Calvin Inst. Rel. 4.19.18, while denying that this passage establishes the sacrament of extreme unction,  argues that even if James  referred to a sacramental rite in apostolic times, that rite would no longer apply after the time of the apostles. A sacrament must be "a ceremony appointed by God (caeremonia a Deo instituta), and have a promise from God" that is clearly applied to later generations. Thus extreme unction is not a sacrament (4.19.20; Beveridge, 2: 637; Baum, Cunitz, Reuss, 1080).
  • Melancthon Apol. Conf. Aug. 13.3 defines a sacrament as "rites which have the command of God (ritus, qui habent mandatum Dei) and to which the promise of grace (promissio gratiae) has been added." Apol. Conf. Aug. 13.6: "Confirmation and Extreme Unction are rites received from the Fathers which not even the Church requires as necessary to salvation, because they do not have God's command" (308-11).

Catholic Responses

  • Eck Ench. 12 "It does not seem unsuitable (non videtur absonum) for an apostle, with the authority of Christ (authoritate Christi) and the command of the Holy Spirit, to institute a sacrament. Yet even if Christ instituted it, still James published it" (At si etiam Christus illud instituit, tamen Iacobus promulgavit; 144).
  • Conc. Trid. Unc. ch. 3  "On no account, then, should any attention be paid to those who, contradicting the plain and lucid doctrine (apertam et dilucidam sententiam) of the apostle James, teach that this anointing is a human invention (figmentum humanum) or a rite received from the Fathers that has no mandate from God and no promise of grace (nec mandatum Dei nec promissionem Dei); or to those who assert that this anointing has already ceased, as if it referred only to the gift of healing in the primitive Church (primitiva Ecclesia); or to those who maintain that the rite and usage observed in the holy Roman Church in the administration of this sacrament are contrary to the doctrine of the apostle James (Iacobi Apostoli sententiae repugnare) and, therefore, must be changed" (DzH 1699).
  • Conc. Trid. Unc. can. 1 "If anyone says that extreme unction is not truly and properly a sacrament instituted by Christ our Lord (sacramentum a Christo Domino nostro institutum) and promulgated (promulgatum) by the blessed apostle James but only a rite received from the Fathers or a human invention, let him be anathema" (DzH 1716). Cf also cans. 2-3 (DzH 1717-18).

Context

Biblical Intertextuality

14c anointing him with oil Connotations of Oil in Scripture

Uses and Connotations of Oil

The use of olive oil (H= šmn, yçhr; G= elaion) is well attested throughout the Scriptures.

It was a general sign of

  • wealth (Ez 16:13);
  • health and treating wounds (Ps 104:15 [G-103:15]: “oil to make their faces shine");
  • happiness (Is 61:3: the “oil of gladness”); cf. Ps 133:2 (G-132:2), G= muron.
  • It was used in everyday cooking (1Kgs 17:12), for lighting in homes (Mt 25:1) and in the Tabernacle (Ex 27:20).
  • Listed as an essential agricultural product (Dt 11:14).
  • Anointing with oil was associated with cleanliness (Ru 3:3: anointing after bathing) and with God’s blessing. Cf. Ps 23:5 (G-22:5): “You set a table for me in front of my enemies; you anoint (lipainô) my head with oil; my cup overflows.”
  • Sir 38:26 lists it as one of the necessities (chreiai) of human life.

Anointing in Scripture

  • Anointing with oil was also used in specifically ritual contexts: the anointing of a king (e.g., 1Sm 10:1), a priest (Ex 28:41), and a prophet (1Kgs 19:16); it also served for consecrating sacred objects (Gn 28:18; Lv 8:11). In these cultic contexts, the Hebrew verb mšḥ, is used, translated in Greek with the verb chriô, (or “pour upon” epicheô).
  • According to Mk 6:13, Jesus' disciples "anointed (aleiphô; the same verb used in Jas 5:14) with oil many who were sick and cured (therapeuô) them."

Natural Elements Combined with Supernatural Healing

Other OT passages combine prayers for supernatural healing with a use of natural remedies: the Lord promises to heal Hezekiah in response to his prayers (Is 38:5), but Isaiah also ordered: “Bring a poultice of figs and apply it to the boil for his recovery” (Is 38:21). A similar combination is found in the wisdom literature: “My son, when you are ill, do not delay, but pray to God, for it is he who heals….Then give the doctor (iatros) his place lest he leave; you need him too” (Sir 38:9-12).

In his own healings, Jesus occasionally makes use of natural elements: he uses saliva (Mk 7:33; 8:23; Jn 9:6) and often physical touch (Mk 1:41; 3:10; 5:28–31,41; 6:56; Lk 6:19); his disciples employed olive oil in their healings (Mk 6:13) and also employed physical touch (Acts 3:7; 5:15; 19:11–12).

15f Association of Healing and Forgiveness of Sin

Old Testament View

In its holistic view of the human being, several OT passages presuppose a close connection between healing and forgiveness of sin, just as some connection between sin and illness was assumed.

  • Ps 103:2-3 (G-Ps 102:2-3):  “Bless the Lord, my soul; and do not forget all his gifts. Who pardons all your sins, and heals (G= ioamai; M = rp’) all your ills." 
  • Ps 107:17-20 (G-Ps 106:17-20): "Some fell sick from their wicked ways, afflicted because of their sins. They loathed all manner of food; they were at the gates of death. In their distress they cried to the Lord, who saved (G= sôᵢzô; M = yš‘) them in their peril, sent forth his word to heal them, and snatched them from the grave."
  • In the eschatological age, both illness and sin will be removed: "No one who dwells there will say, 'I am sick'; the people who live there will be forgiven their guilt" (Is 33:24). See further Theology 5:14-15.

Jesus' Holistic View of Healing

Jesus presumes the connection between disability and sin in his healing of the paralytic (Mt 9:1–8). In two further passages, however, Jesus denies a causal relation: those who suffer oppression or accident are no worse sinners than those who do not (Lk 13:1–5) and disability can be an opportunity to reveal God's works (Jn 9:3).

Jesus’ own healing is holistic. His healing of the paralytic is associated with forgiveness of sin in Mt 9:1–8 (cf. Mk 2:17: “It is not the healthy who need the doctor, but the sick. I came to call not the upright, but sinners).” His healings are regularly associated with a call for faith (cf. Mk 2:5; 5:34,36; 9:23), and are understood as signs that the Kingdom of God has come near (cf. Mt 11:5–6). See also Theology 5:15b.

Reception

Liturgies

14c anointing him with oil Type of Oil and Method of Anointing

Type of Oil

Christian tradition distinguishes different types of oil for liturgical use.

  • Gloss. Ord. (V) ad loc. cites a canonical rule: "A priest (presbyter) in the Lord's Supper should carry with him three flasks: one for chrism, another with oil for anointing catechumens, a third for the sick according to the apostolic saying (ad infirmos iuxta Apostolicam sententiam), that whenever someone is sick, he should bring in the presbyters (Jas 5:14; col. 1303). This is incorrectly ascribed to the Council of Mieux (Concilium Meldense); the decree is found in Burchard of Worms Decr. 75  (PL 140:741). A variant of the rule is found in the Carolingian Capitula Ecclesiastica (Cap. Eccl. 17) which instructs a priest (presbyter) to carry two flasks, one for chrism and the other for anointing catechumens or the sick, citing Jas 5:14 (179).

CCC 1294 distinguishes the meaning of the oils used in the different sacramental anointings.

Method of Anointing

By medieval times, the sick were anointed on various parts of the body as representative of the various senses:

  • Conc. Flor. Exs. Deo "He is to be anointed on these parts: on the eyes on account of sight (propter visum), on the ears on account of hearing, on the nostrils on account of smelling, on the mouth on account of taste and speech, on the hands on account of touch (in manibus propter tactum), on the feet on account of movement, on the loins on account of the pleasure seated there"  (DzH 1324).
  • Aquinas ST Sup. Q. 32 a. 6: "Now all our knowledge has its origin in the senses. And, since the remedy for sin should be applied where sin originates in us first, for that reason the places of the fives senses (loca quinque sensuum) are anointed: the eyes, on account of the sight, the ears on account of hearing, the nostrils on account of the smell, the mouth on account of the taste, the hands on account of the touch which is keenest in the finger tips (in some places too the loins are anointed on account of the appetite), and the feet are anointed on account of the motive power of which they are the chief instrument" (English Dominicans 1947, 5:2665).
  • In the revised Roman ritual, the sick person is anointed on the forehead and hands.
  • The Byzantine rite includes anointing on the forehead, chest, hands, and feet (cf. Critopoulos Conf. Faith 13.4; CCFCT 1:529; Karmirês 1986, 2:544).