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8 Draw near to God and He will draw near to you. Cleanse [your] hands, [you] sinners; and purify [your] hearts, [you] double-minded.
8c hearts Anthropological Importance of the Heart In biblical anthropology, the heart is the source of one's inner life, thinking, feeling, and will. See Biblical Intertextuality 1:26,3:14.
8c double-minded Echo James alludes to the discussion in Jas 1:5-8 on the double-minded person who lacks faith and is divided by his conflicting thoughts (see Biblical Intertextuality 1:8; Peritestamental Literature 1:8; Jewish Tradition 1:8; Christian Tradition 1:8). In this current context, James specifies double-mindedness as allowing desires and jealousy in one's mind.
Hermas makes explicit in various passages the connections James assumes here: a call to "cleanse themselves from all worldly desires" (epithumiai tou aiônos; →Herm. Sim. 7.2) is equivalent to the call to "cleanse your heart from doublemindedness" (→Herm. Mand. 9.6-7). See below Christian Tradition 4:8c.
8bc cleanse [your] hands …purify your hearts: Cultic Purity Language James applies the language of cultic worship (cf. Jas 1:18b; 1:27; 3:6c; 3:17b) to moral purity; cf. his similar appropriation of the cultic sense of teleios (cf. Biblical Intertextuality 1:4a). This passage has specific verbal echoes with:
8 Cleanse [your] hands +and purify [your] hearts: Cultic Purity Language
In G, "cleanse" (katharizô) refers to making people or objects ritually pure, it also refers to cleansing of sin.
In G, "purify" (hagnizô) refers to making oneself or an object ritually pure for worship:
Other biblical texts parallel James in regularly applying cultic purification to moral purification:
Clean hands are used as a symbol of moral purity:
A clean heart is also a common biblical symbol, although the words katharos / katharizô are commonly used, instead of James' hagnizô. This symbol can be combined with purity / cleanness of hands:
James' connection here with the Jesus' tradition is also important: "Blessed are the pure of heart (katharoi têᵢ kardiaᵢ), for the will see God" (Mt 5:8).
8a he will draw near to you In his discussion of God's immutability, Aquinas quotes this passage as an apparent proof that God is mutable (mutabilis). In his reply, Aquinas clarifies the metqphorical nature of the biblical language:
8a draw near to God Ways of "Drawing Near" to God
→ ad loc. suggest the following ways in which one can approach God: Comm.
8c double-minded Explaining "Double-mindedness"
8a draw near Close Relationship with the Holiness of God
In addition to the generic sense of approaching near an object or destination, this verb eggizô also describes a close relationship with God: "For what great nation is there that has gods so close (eggizô) to it as the Lord, our God, is to us whenever we call upon him?" (Dt 4:7). "I am a God near at hand, says the Lord, and not a God afar off" (Jer 23:23).
More significantly for James, the word also is regularly applied to approaching the holiness of the Lord, especially in the holy places (e.g., Mt. Sinai, the Temple). Before coming near (eggizô) to the Lord's presence in the burning bush, Moses must first remove his sandals (Ex 3:5); the priests who "come near" (eggizô) to the Lord at Mt. Sinai must first sanctify themselves, lest they be destroyed (Ex 19:22); after Aaron's sons are killed when they approach the Lord with "strange fire," the Lord says, "Among those who are near me (tois eggizousin), I will be shown holy" (Lv 10:3).
The term is then used in a metaphorical sense for Christians approaching the holiness of God. Contrasting the imperfect Levitical priesthood with the perfected priesthood of Jesus, Hebrews argues that people are truly able to come near to God through the high priest Jesus, "for the law brought nothing to perfection; on the other hand, a better hope is introduced, through which we draw near to God" (Heb 7:19).
James correlates the drawing near image with the ritual purity language (cleanse your hands, purify your hearts): one must prepare oneself (by being cleansed of sin) in order to draw near to God, just as the priest must become ritually pure before entering God's holy presence (Christian Tradition 4:8a).
1–10 Use in Lectionary →RML : Tuesday, Week 7, Year 2.
8b Cleanse [your] hands Metaphor of Ritual Purity in 1 Clement and Hermas
James' image of approaching God in a ritually pure state is reflected in other early Christian writers who may have used James:
1:1–5:20 James Depictions of the Author Depictions of James, the author of the epistle, in paintings, statues, manuscript illustrations, engravings, woodcuts, and embroidery on liturgical vestments are particularly prominent in the Middle Ages. A common consensus of the artists is that the author of the epistle is James the Just, leader of the Jerusalem church; he is typically further identified with James, son of Alphaeus, one of Jesus' Twelve (Mk 3:18), and "James the Less" (Mk 15:40). The iconography of James draws particularly on accounts of James recorded in → 23 and Hist. eccl.→ 2, who in turn draw on accounts from Clement of Alexandria and Hegesipus. See also Vir. ill.→James: Introduction.
Several prominent features of these portrayals may be noted:
The following images are noteworthy:
James holds a club.
James, who resembles his brother Jesus, is second from his left. This full-scale copy was the main source for the— unfortunate—twenty-year restoration of the original (1978–1998). It includes several lost details such as Christ's feet, the transparent glass decanters on the table, and the floral motifs of the tapestries that decorate the room's interior. It was first mentioned in 1626 by the author Bartolomeo Sanese as hanging in the Certosa di Pavia, a monastery near Pavia, Italy, but it is unlikely that it was intended for this location. At some point, the upper third of the picture was cut off, and the width was reduced. Giampietrino is thought to have worked closely with Leonardo when he was in Milan. A very fine, full-size copy of this painting, before it was cut down, is installed at Tongerlo Abbey in Westerlo, near Antwerp, Belgium.
The side and central panels describe a a great hall with blue grey walls and three-colored tiles. In the side panels are depicted the half sisters of Virgin Mary, called after their fathers Mary Cleophas (left) and Mary Salome (right) together with their husbands.
Left panel: St. Mary Cleophas and Alphaeus (with the features of Friedrich the Wise with their two sons, the Apostles St. James the Less (at her breast) and Joseph Justus, called St. Barnabas, as annunciator of the Gospel of Matthew depicted with a book.
Central panel: Joseph, who seems to seems to sleep, the Virgin, dressed in blue with yellow lining, Anna and the Christ Child on her knee, who is stretching out his hand towards an apple given to him by Virgin Mary. Anna's three husbands following → are shown in the background in the matroneum: on the left Joachim, who is attracted by the holy women in front of him and whose relation is also shown by the corresponding blue and yellow color of his dress, Cleophas (with the physiognomy and chain of Emperor Maximilian I and Salomas, with the physiognomy of Sixtus Oelhafen von Schöllenbach, secretary of Friedrich III, Maximilian I and Karl V), who are talking to each other. There is an architectural structure by a great stone bench in the foreground of the central panel with two marble columns on the sides, over which is strectched a cloth of gold. On the right column is a tablet with date and signature: [LVCAS CHRONVS FACIEBAT ANNO 1509. The parapet of the matroneum is decorated by a sculptured frieze with dancing putti holding six escutcheons with the six fields of Electorate of Saxony. In the hall are shown the 17 members of the Holy Kinship. In the central panel are shown two more children of Mary Cleophas and Alpheus, the Apostles Simon, patron saint of weavers, dyers, tanners and saddlers and Jude, who went on mission and suffered their martyrdom together and therefore are regularly depicted together. Leg. aur.
Right panel: St. Mary Salome and Zebedee (with the features of Frederick III, Elector of Saxony, and his brother Herzog Johann der Beständige). St. Mary Salome, dressed in gold with dark red lining, is combing her son Saint James the Greater and while Saint John the Evangelist is hiding in her dress.
James is shown holding a Bible, symbolizing his status as a scriptural writer, in one hand. James is depicted in the Mannerist style with elongated form and without any of the traditional iconographic symbols
The risen Jesus appears to James and breaks bread with him (based on an account recorded in → 2, said to be drawn from the Gospel according to the Hebrews). Vir. ill.
James holds a book and club.
James, resembling Jesus, prayers on his knees with outstretched arms. It perhaps reflects Hegesippus' statement that James spent so much time in prayer that his knees were as hard as a camel's.
The inscription bearing the name of the saint has disappeared, but the iconography—facial features and beard shape —suggest that the icon is of James. Byzantine art places him among the founding fathers of the Church. As the creator of the first liturgy containing memorial services and the author of the message, which speaks of the healing power of prayer (Jas 5:14-16), he was also worshipped in ancient times as a healer. In Novgorod, James is prayed for the end of the epidemics. In sacred iconography, the representations of James of Jerusalem alone are very rare. We know the icons of Novgorod in which he is represented with other saints: Nicholas the Thaumaturgist, James the brother of God, Ignatius the bearer of God, end of the 15th c.; James the brother of God, Cosmas and Damian, 2nd quarter of the 16th c. The icon comes from the best workshops in Moscow or Novgorod.
1–12 Internal and External Conflicts Overall, James again emphasizes the connection between the microcosm of the individual person and the macrocosm of the community: disorder and strife (caused by passions and conflicting desires) within the person manifest themselves in disorder and conflict in the community. This section expands earlier topics :
James' exhortation to the community may be analyzed in the following way:
While the pericope presents one famous crux interpretativa—Jas 4:5, a challenging verse that defies clear interpretation, raising a host of textual, grammatical, and interpretative issues, cf. Textual Criticism 4:5b; Grammar 4:5b; Christian Tradition 4:5a; Christian Tradition 4:5b—several texts have drawn special attention in the interpretive tradition: