The Bible in Its Traditions

James 3:2–12

Byz Nes

For we all stumble in many [ways]. If anyone does not stumble in word, he is a mature man, able also to bridle the whole body.

For we all offend in many ways. If anyone does not offend in word, he is a perfect man. And he is then able, as if with a bridle, to lead the whole body around.

For in many things we all stumble. Anyone who does not offend in word, this one is a perfect man, and able also to subdue his whole body.

Byz S TR
Nes S

Consider that we put bits in horses' mouths that they may obey us, and we guide their whole body.

Now if we put the horses` bridles into their mouths that they may obey us, we turn about their whole body also.

For so we put bridles into the mouths of horses, in order to submit them to our will, and so we turn their whole body around.

Byz V

Consider also the ships: although they are so large and are driven by fierce winds, they are guided by a very small rudder wherever the impulse of the pilot desires.

Behold, the ships also, though they are so great and are driven by rough winds, are yet turned about by a very small rudder, whither the impulse of the steersman willeth.

Behold also the ships, great as they are, when driven by severe winds, they are turned about with a very small rudder, wherever the pilot wishes.

Byz S TR

Even so the tongue is a small member and it boasts great things. See how great a forest a little fire kindles!

So the tongue also is a little member, and boasteth great things. Behold, how much wood is kindled by how small a fire!

So also the tongue certainly is a small part, but it moves great things. Consider that a small fire can set ablaze a great forest.

Byz Nes TR

And the tongue is a fire, a world of iniquity. Thus the tongue is set among our members, as that which defiles the whole body, and sets on fire the course of nature; and it is set on fire by hell.

And so the tongue is like a fire, comprising all iniquity. The tongue, stationed in the midst of our body, can defile the entire body and inflame the wheel of our nativity, setting a fire from Hell.

The tongue is a fire, and the sinful world like a forest: that very tongue, while it is among our members, can defile our whole body, and set on fire the records of our race which have rolled down from the beginning: and in the end it is consumed by fire.

Byz Nes S TR

For every kind of both beasts and birds, of both reptiles and sea creatures, is tamed and has been tamed by mankind.

For the nature of all beasts and birds and serpents and others is ruled over, and has been ruled over, by human nature.

Byz S TR

But no man can tame the tongue. [It] is an unrestrainable evil, full of deadly poison.

But the tongue can no man tame; [it is] a restless evil, [it is] full of deadly poison.

But no man is able to rule over the tongue, a restless evil, full of deadly poison.

Nes TR

With it we bless our God and Father, and with it we curse men, who are created according to [the] likeness of God.

Therewith bless we the Lord and Father; and therewith curse we men, who are made after the likeness of God

By it we bless God the Father, and by it we speak evil of men, who have been made in the likeness of God.

Byz Nes V S TR

10  Out of the same mouth come blessings and curses. My brothers, these things ought not to be so.

Nes V S TR

11  The spring does not pour forth from the same opening [both ]the sweet and the bitter [water, does it]?

11  Doth the fountain send forth from the same opening sweet [water] and bitter?

Nes S TR

12  It is not possible, my brothers, [for] a fig tree to make olives, or a vine [to make ]figs, [is it]? Thus no spring is able to produce [both] salt and sweet water.

12  Can a fig tree, my brethren, yield olives, or a vine figs? Neither [can] salt water yield sweet.

12  My brothers, can the fig tree yield grapes? Or the vine, figs? Then neither is salt water able to produce fresh water.

12 appropriate fruits Mt 7:16-20


Literary Devices

10a mouth Metonymy  Here James switches from the tongue to the mouth as a figure for the power of speech. 

2b perfect man Theme of Completion and Wholeness James again picks up the theme of wholeness and perfection, first discussed at Jas 1:4, "that you may be complete and whole, lacking in nothing" (cf. →James: Perfection / Wholeness in James).

The Greek teleios echoes Jesus' teaching ("Be perfect just as your heavenly Father is perfect" (Mt 5:48), just as it ties in with the Stoic doctrine that the person who has all the virtues is perfect and complete. Here James refers specfically to the teacher as the "complete man" (Ancient Texts 1:4a; Ancient Texts 1:4b; Biblical Intertextuality 1:4b; Peritestamental Literature 1:4a).


Ancient Texts

2b in word Internal and External Logos The Stoics distinguished between an internal logos (endiathetos logos) and a "spoken" or "uttered" logos (prophorikos logos) (→SVF 2.43). Here James seems to have in mind the latter, while Jas 1:18,21 likely refers to the former; cf. Philo Migr. 71.  See also this distinction in Jas 3:11 (Peritestamental Literature 3:11).


Literary Devices

4f,5:4,7,9,11 Look Call for Attention James uses the verb idou (V = ecce) several times throughout the work to call special attention to what follows.


6b establishes itself Connotation of Power In its transitive sense, the verb kathistêmi means to set down or place something, thus in a more metaphorical sense to appoint or establish someone in a certain position (cf. 1 Macc 3:55).

In a reflexive sense, it can mean to establish or appoint oneself. This is likely James' meaning here: as the tongue claims great things for itself (v. 5), here it appoints itself or establishes itself (by implication, in a position of power or authority) among the other parts of the body. This interpretation is consistent with James' other use of the verb kathistêmi in Jas 4:4, where the person who wishes to be a friend of the world establishes himself, or makes himself, an enemy of God. From this position of power and authority, the tongue (representing sinful speech) affects the whole rest of the person (body) negatively.

Literary Devices

6a tongue is a fire Metonymy The tongue here stands for speech; fire for the destructive consequences of improper speech. At times, the "tongue" takes on  the particularly negative connotation of uncontrolled, destructive speech (e.g., Jas 3:6–8).

6c staining the whole body Use of Cultic Purity Language James uses cultic purity language elsewhere at Jas 1:18b; 1:27; 3:17c; 4:8bc. This passage's use of spiloô is a specific echo of  the use of the cognate aspilos at Jas 1:27 "to keep oneself unstained by the world." See also Literary Devices 1:27.


Biblical Intertextuality

6a tongue is fire Fire as an Image for the Destructiveness of Uncontrolled Speech Sirach also warns against the destructiveness of the tongue, comparing it to a fire (Sir 28:13–27):

  • The tongue "will have no power over the godly, nor will they be burned in its flame. But those who forsake the Lord will fall victim to it, as it burns among them unquenchably" (Sir 28:26–27). Cf. Prv 17:27; Sir 26:18–21.


Comparison of Versions

6a the world of unrighteousness Attempt to Clarify James' Meaning S attempts to flesh out James' metaphor, balancing the comparison of the first clause with a second comparison: "And the tongue is a fire, and the sinful world is like a forest."


Biblical Intertextuality

7b tamed by human nature Allusions to the Genesis Creation Account Given his allusion to the four categories of animals in the creation account (Gn 1:26) in 3:7a, James' reference to "taming" animals likely alludes to the divine command  to "have dominion over" (Greek: archô) all other living creatures (Gn 1:28). James again alludes to the creation account ( Gn 1:26-27 : humans created in God's likeness) in Jas 3:9b.

The biblical tradition often reiterates the theme of human rule over all other creatures: e.g.,  Ps 8:6-9; Sir 17:4.


Literary Devices

8a But the tongue Emphatic Anastrophe James begins this sentence with the object of the verb, emphasizing the power of the tongue that is so difficult to control.


Ancient Texts

8a tongue To Tame the Tongue The Hellenistic moral tradition often counseled against speaking too much. See above Ancient Texts 1:19c.

Biblical Intertextuality

8b uncontrollable evil Allusion to Prov 26:28? The original text of James (akatastaton kakon) may allude here to Prv 26:28: "A false tongue hates truth, and an unguarded mouth works instability" (akatastasia).

8a tongue Wisdom Literature: Admonitions to Control One’s Speech Biblical wisdom literature frequently admonishes the reader to control his speech (Biblical Intertextuality 1:19c; Biblical Intertextuality 1:26b).

8c full of death-bearing poison Biblical Allusions?

  • James may well allude to Ps 140:3 (G-Ps 139:4): "They have sharpened their tongue (glôssa) as the tongue of a serpent; the poison (ios) of asps is under their lips"; Paul quotes this verse at Rom 3:13.
  • A further allusion to the serpent in the Garden of Eden, who led the first humans astray with his deceitful speech, is possible, given the other allusions to Genesis in Jas 3:7-9 (Biblical Intertextuality 3:7a). In addition, some Second Temple and rabbinic traditions associate the Eden serpent with poison (e.g., Apoc. Mos. 19.3).



9f with it we bless the Lord and Father, and with it we curse humans Proper Use of Technology in Proper Speech Pius XII Mir. Pr. 122 welcomes the development of motion pictures, radio, and television, as these technologies can be used for good in the fields of education, art, recreation, and the spread of the Gospel. Yet, citing Jas 3:9-10, he notes that these technologies can also be used for morally bad purposes.



11 spring Literal and Metaphorical Senses The Greek pêgê (V: fons; S: nbywt’) refers to the source of flowing water, either a natural spring or a fountain. It can then be used metaphorically as the source of any thought or activity.


11 Does a spring Interro-negation James uses the interrogative particle mêti, indicating an expected negative answer. 

Literary Devices

11f Diatribe Style: Rhetorical Questions In the diatribe style, James asks rhetorical questions, expecting negative responses, "Does a spring pour forth both fresh and brackish water from the same opening?" (3:11). "Can a fig tree, my brothers, produce olives, or a grapevine figs?" (3:12a).


Biblical Intertextuality

11 sweet and bitter The Bitter Water at Marah A Jewish audience likely would have heard an allusion to the account in Ex 15:22-25, where the people find the water at Marah bitter (Greek: pikros) and undrinkable, and the Lord has Moses throw in a piece of wood to "sweeten" (Greek: glukainô) the water.



12b Neither can salty [water] produce sweet water V Nes: A Compressed Expression The grammar of this phrase is very compressed, reading (in Nes) literally: "neither salty produces sweet water." In analogy with the image in Jas 3:11 (a spring does not produce both brackish and sweet water from the same opening) and taking the verbs "can" as implied from 3:12a, one may translate, "neither can salty [water] produce sweet water" or "neither can a salty [spring or fountain] produce sweet water." See also Textual Criticism 3:12b.


Ancient Cultures

12a olives Cultural and Religious Significance James' reference to olives in his analogy would have been familiar to his Mediterranean readers; on the cultural and religious significance of olives (especially in connection with olive oil and anointing), see Ancient Texts 5:14c; Biblical Intertextuality 5:14c; Peritestamental Literature 5:14c.

12a fig tree Cultural Significance of Figs Figs were a staple in ancient Mediterranean cultures; they were eaten fresh or pressed into cakes (e.g., 1Sm 30:12). Figs were also considered to have medicinal value: Isaiah orders Hezekiah to apply a "poultice of figs" to a boil (Is 38:21).

Suggestions for Reading

1–12 An Ethics of Language The connection of this pericope with Jas 2:14–26 is not obvious. In general, however, it sustains James' concern with proper speech (→Speech in James).  The specific concern of Jas 2:14–26 was the consistency between speech (confession of faith) and action. The major point of Jas 3:1–12 is clear enough: James exhorts his readers to control their tongues.  

Artistry: Coinage of a "Classic"

  • In contrast with other parts of James that are a collection of materials that have no clear relationship, Jas 3:1–12 is a coherent composition that features substantial rhetorical design (Literary Devices 3:1–12).


Among the most notable individual passages:



2a in many [ways] Adverbial Use of the Adjective The plural adjective polla may thus nuance the verb "to stumble":

  • one stumbles frequently or a lot;
  • one stumbles in many ways.

Since James immediately refers to going astray in the specific aspect of speech, the latter translation makes better sense.

Literary Devices

2a stumble Metaphor for Sinning The Greek ptaiô, literally meaning "to stumble," is also used at Jas 2:10. The literal sense of stumbling was expanded to making a mistake, suffering a misfortune, or sinning. In this way, it would also resonate with the Greek hamartanô, which literally means to miss a target, but is figuratively used to denote sinning (Ancient Texts 3:2a; Biblical Intertextuality 3:2a; Peritestamental Literature 3:2a). 

2b does not stumble in word Irony? Interpreters disagree on whether this statement is to be taken at face value as an actual possibility, or whether James means it ironically or hyperbolically, in the sense, "If someone would be able to not go astray in speaking [though this is impossible]..."

Given the centrality of the theme of wholeness (perfection) in James, however, one should take James' word at face value. James clearly thinks it possible to be a "perfect man": "so that you may be complete (perfect) and whole, lacking in nothing" (Jas 1:4). But "pefect" here does not mean flawless but complete, perfected, fully matured. For the Stoics, the "complete" man is able to control his passions. Nonetheless, Jesus' teaching in Mt 5:48—"be perfect as your heavenly Father is perfect"—is undoubedtly at work here. Cf. Ancient Texts 1:4a; Ancient Texts 1:4b; Peritestamental Literature 1:4aBiblical Intertextuality 1:4a.

4a driven by fierce winds Image from Greco-Roman Moral Tradition: Chaotic Storms James again employs the image of fierce winds at sea first used at Jas 1:6 to evoke the inner state of a man with conflicting thoughts. Here too James alludes to a Greco-Roman moral tradition, appropriated by Hellenistic Judaism, in which the passions are symbolized as fierce storms on the sea (e.g., 4 Macc. 7:1–3). See also Ancient Texts 3:4b; Peritestamental Literature 3:3-4.


Ancient Texts

5c small fire ignites such a wood Traditional Image James draws on a conventional image:

  • Pindar Pyth. 3.37–38 "Fire that springs from one spark onto a mountain can destroy a great forest" (Race 1997, 255). Pindar uses the image to illustrate how one immoral action caused widespread disaster.
  • Plutarch Garr. 10 quotes Euripides' Ino to illustrate how quickly rumors spread: "With but a little torch one might set fire to Ida's rock; and tell one man a tale, soon all the town will know" (Helmbold 1939, 425).  He also applies the image of a spreading fire to gossip in Plutarch Cohib. Ira 4. See also Peritestamental Literature 3:5c-6a.



6a world of unrighteousness Unclear Syntax The syntax of this verse is unclear. The basic interpretive issue is to determine how the phrase "the world of unrighteousness" (ho kosmos tês adikias) is related syntactically to the previous phrase ("the tongue is a fire") and to the following phrase, "the tongue is placed among the parts" [of the body]," along with the attributive participles that modify the tongue: "staining the entire body," "sets on fire the course of life," and "is set on fire by hell."

There are two basic options: 

  • This phrase is a predicate: "The tongue is placed among our members as a world of unrighteousness"; cf. NRSV.
  • Byz, TR and V place the first two phrases in apposition: "And the tongue is a fire; a world of unrighteousness." Byz and TR place the adverb outôs before the second reference to the tongue. Cf. Textual Criticism 3:6b.


Peritestamental Literature

6d Gehenna References to Gehenna and Connection with Fire The term appears in Second Temple literature, e.g.: Apoc. Ab. 15:6; Sib. Or. 1.103; 2:292; 4:186; Mart. Ascen. Isa. 1:3; 4:14.

Some texts associate it explicity with fire: Apoc. Ab. 15:6. Many other texts associate eternal punishment with fire: e.g., 1 En. 10.6; 54.1; 90.24–25; 4 Esd. 7:36–38.

Ancient Texts

7b human nature Human Nature The Greek anthrôpinê phusis is a common phrase:

See also Peritestamental Literature 3:7b.

Peritestamental Literature

7b human nature Hellenistic Jewish Adoption of the Phrase The Greek anthrôpinê phusis (Ancient Texts 3:7b) was taken up in Hellenistic Judaism:

  • Philo Spec. 2:225 "parents are midway between the natures of God and man" (Colson 1937, 447); cf. other uses in Philo: Philo Mos. 1.6; Philo Virt. 79.4
  • T. Job 3.3 "his is the power of the devil, by whom human nature (anthrôpinê phusis) is deceived" (OTP 2:840).



8c death-bearing Etymology The Greek thanatêphoros literally means "death-bearing"; it is used to describe sin in G-Nm 18:22 (Biblical Intertextuality 3:8c).


Peritestamental Literature

8c full of death-bearing poison Biblical Allusions Several Second Temple texts pick up on the biblical connection between deceitful tongues and the poison of snakes (Biblical Intertextuality 3:8c).

  • 1QHa 13 (5).27 "a lying tongue, like viper's venom (hmh) that spreads to the extremities" (DSSSE 1:173).
  • T. Job 43.12: "the poison (ios) of asps in his tongue" (OTP 2:862).



9a bless the Lord Liturgical Blessing A prayer blessing the Lord begins the Liturgy of the Eucharist in the Roman Catholic Mass:

  • MR:  "Blessed are you, Lord God of all creation, for through your goodness we have received the bread we offer you" (529).


Textual Criticism

12b no spring produces salty and sweet water Explanatory Variants The likely original text (as given in Nes) reads elliptically "neither salty produces sweet water." Various textual traditions added words, apparently in an attempt to clarify the meaning.

  •  א , the second hand of C,  P, and Ψ, along with Byz, add "similarly" (houtôs) to clarify the relationship with the previous clause; TR, S, and V follow this reading;
  • Byz and P add "no spring" (oudemia / oute mia pêgê) to clarify the reference of "salty."

See also Grammar 3:12b.


Biblical Intertextuality

12a grapevine Symbolism

= Prosperity and Eschatological Plenty

Together with the fig tree, owning grapevines was a proverbial sign of self-sufficiency, security, and peace in ancient Israel. See above Biblical Intertextuality 3:12a.

= Israel

In Isaiah's parable, the vineyard symbolizes Israel,and the Lord is the owner (Is 5:1-7). Although the Lord carefully tends the vineyard, it produces only wild grapes, a symbol of the people's unfaithfulness and corruption. Jesus took over this basic symbolism in his parable of the vineyard (Mk 12:1-12) See also Ps 80:8, Jer 2:21; Hos 10:1 for Israel as a grapevine.

= Christ

In the Gospel of John (Jn 15:1-17) Jesus applies the imagery to himself: "I am the true vine, and my Father is the vine grower." His disciples are the branches; those that did not bear fruit would be cut off and burned; branches that did bear fruit would be pruned so that they would bear even more fruit. See also Ancient Cultures 3:12a.



1:27c,3:6,4:4 world Negative Connotations The word kosmos is negative in James's worldview, expressing a realm or state opposed to God (Biblical Intertextuality 1:27; Christian Tradition 1:27; Christian Tradition 4:4b).

  • Jas 1:27: "keep oneself unstained from the world";
  • Jas 4:4: "Do you not know that to be a lover of the world means enmity with God?"

Textual Criticism

5b boasts : Byz TR | Nes : claims great [things]

  • The first hand of P20, א, and other witnesses (followed by TR and Byz) read megalauchei ('to boast");
  • P74, A, and B read megala auchei ("to claim great things").

There is little difference in meaning. 

3a See : Byz S TR | V Nes: For if

  • Some minuscules read ide ("see").
  • The first hand of א , A, and B read ei de, ("and if" or "but if").
  • א also adds "for" (gar), the reading accepted by Nes; also V reads autem.

Ide is more in keeping with James' regular style, although it may be due to iotacism, as eide would have been pronounced the same as ide. The mss. evidence favors ei de. See below Comparison of Versions 3:3a.

5c small : Byz TR | Nes: such: Clarification James uses the ambiguous adjective hêlikon for both "so small" and "so large" (Vocabulary 3:5c). To clarify his meaning the first hands of A (apparently) and C, along with Ψ and Byz replace hêlikon with oligon ("small") before "fire" (Comparison of Versions 3:5c).

6b P and Byz add houtôs ("thus") before "the tongue." See below Grammar 3:6a.

8b uncontrollable : Byz TR | Nes: unstable

  • א , A, and  B read akatastatos ("unstable"); cf. also V.

  • C and Ψ read akatascheton ("uncontrollable"); cf. also S. This is a more common word, and thus scribes might have substituted it for the original akatastatos (Comparison of Versions 3:8b).

9a God : Byz TR | V S Nes: the Lord

  • The best mss. (e.g.,  P20  א  A B C) read kurios ("Lord"); 
  • Some minuscules and Byz read theon ("God"); cf. Jas 1:27:  "God and Father". See also Comparison of Versions 3:9a.


2b word Semantic Range of Logos Literally meaning “word,” logos has a rich range of meaning (→James: Philosophical background of logos).

In this context, the most natural referent is speech, since a discourse concerning the ability to control one’s tongue immediately follows this verse (Jas 3:2–5). Since James is discussing teachers, logos could also be translated as "teaching" in the sense of the content of one's teaching; cf. Lk 10:39: "[Mary] sat beside the Lord at his feet listening to him speak" (lit.: "listening to his logos"). Ps.-Hilary of Arles Tract. Iac. ad loc. takes it in this sense: doctrina recte fidei (col. 75).

6d wheel of birth Course of Life? The noun trochós has the basic sense of "wheel" (distinct from tróchos "race-course"). The word can refer metaphorically to the turning and changing of events, a cycle, a whole round of; cf. Ps.-Phoc. 27: "life is a wheel" (ho bios trochos; van der Horst, 88–89). See also Peritestamental Literature 3:6d.

The phrase "of birth" (tês geneseôs) translates the Greek word genesis, which means also the beginning and origin of something. It can refer to a person's birth (e.g., Diodorus Siculus Bib. hist.  17.51.3). James also uses this term at Jas 1:23 (Vocabulary 1:23b). One can understand James' phrase as referring to a person's course of life, beginning from birth.

8c poison and "rust": Polysemy or Homonymy? The dictionaries vary in deciding whether the noun ios is a case of polysemy (one word with two meanings) or a case of homonymy, i.e. the two nouns have no etymological relation. James uses ios in both meanings:

11f sweet and bitter Metonymous Use: Drinkable and Undrinkable Water

  • Glukus ("sweet") and pikros ("bitter") literally refers to sweet and bitter taste; cf. Rv 10:9, "Take it, and eat; it will be bitter (pikrainô) to your stomach, but sweet (glukus) as honey in your mouth." The words are applied by extension to water that is drinkable and water that is not drinkable (e.g, brackish water, or salt water). See Herodotus Hist. 4.52; Philo Her. 208 for the contrast of these two words.
  • In Jas 3:12, the comparison is between fresh water (glukus) and salt water (halukos). Herodotus Hist. 7.35 uses both halukos and pikros to describe the Hellespont in his account of how Xerxes lashed the stream as punishment for destroying his bridge.

11 pour forth Image of Overflowing Abundance The Greek bruô has the sense of something being full to the point of overflowing; it can also refer to budding plants. This may well be a conscious allusion to Jesus' teaching: "For from the fullness (perisseuma) of the heart the mouth speaks" (Mt 12:34). 

Literary Devices

8b uncontrollable Echo James' original text read akatastasos ("unstable"). See also Textual Criticism 3:8b. James uses the same word to describe the double-minded man in Jas 1:8; the noun form is used in Jas 3:16, which can be translated as "instability."

James thus connects the instability of the double-minded person (who is caught between his attraction to sin and his attraction to God) with the instability of a person's tongue (which speaks both good and evil: cf. Jas 3:9). This internal instability within a person results in instability within the community: "For wherever there is jealousy and rivalry, there is instability and every low-minded practice" (Jas 3:16).

11f Comparisons with Nature

Staying True to One’s Nature

To support his point that one should not both bless God and curse others, James draws some analogies from nature:

  • The same opening in a spring does not produce both fresh and brackish / salty water.
  • Fruit trees produce their own fruit, not the fruit of other types of trees.

The point of the comparisons is that nothing in nature acts against its own nature. Thus James argues not simply that it is inconsistent to bless God and curse others, but rather that such behavior contradicts human nature. God gave humans speech in order to worship God (Jas 3:9a) and to facilitate a harmonius life together (cf. Jas 3:17-18).

See also Ancient Texts 3:7a.

Evoking a Visual Similarity

James' image in 3:11 relies on a visual similarity between the human mouth and the opening of a spring: two types of water gushing forth from a single opening correspond with righteous and unrighteous speech coming forth from a single mouth.


Historical and Geographical Notes

5c such a wood Palestinian Setting? Some commentators, including those who argue for a Palestinian provenance for James, argue that James does not refer to a forest fire (there being few forests in Palestine), but rather a brush fire that might have been set by a farmer to clear his fields of grass, thorns, or weeds (cf. Ex 22:5 (6); Zec 12:6). See also Vocabulary 3:5c.

Ancient Texts

12a Can a fig tree Acting According to One’s Nature Hellenistic authors often used agricultural analogies to make the point that all things, including human beings, should act according to their nature in order to reach their fulfillment.

  • Plutarch Tranq. an. 13 "Therefore not all pursuits are for everyone, but one must, obeying the Pythian inscription, 'know one's self,' and then use one's self for that one thing for which Nature has fitted one (chrêsthai pros hen ho pephuke) and not do violence to Nature (phusis) by dragging one's self towards the emulation of now one sort of life, now another…runners are not discouraged because they do not carry off wrestlers' crowns…we do not expect the vine to bear figs nor the olive grapes" (Helmbold 1939, 209-13).
  • Epictetus Diatr. 4.1.121-25 "For when is a vine faring badly? When it is acting contrary to its own nature (para tên heautês phusin prassêᵢ). When is a cock faring badly? Under the same conditions. So also man. What, then, is his nature? To bite, and kick, and to throw into prison, and behead? No, but to do good, to work together, and to pray for the success of others... everything's evil is what is contrary to its own nature... the nature of man is gentle (hêmeros), and affectionate (philallêlos), and faithful" (pistos; Oldfater 1928, 285-87).

Stoic thought makes a clear distinction between the the nature of a good person and the nature of a bad person (phaulos).

  • Marcus Aurelius Med. 12.16 "Note that he who would not have the wicked (phaulos) do wrong is as one who would not have the fig-tree secrete acrid juice in its fruit, would not have babies cry, or the horse neigh, or any other things be that must be" (hosa alla anagkaia; Haines 1916, 331).

Seneca applies this teaching to moral context: an action is good or bad based on its own nature, not on human opinion:

  • Seneca Ep. 87.25 "good (bonum) does not spring from evil (malum), any more than figs grow from olive-trees. Things which grow correspond to their seed; and goods cannot depart from their class" (Gummere 1917, 2:337).

Biblical Intertextuality

2a stumble Metaphor for Sinning In the scriptural tradition, the metaphorical sense of ptaiô as sinning is attested, but not common (Literary Devices 3:2a):

  • Rom 11:11: "did they [Israel] stumble so as to fall?"
  • 2Pt 1:10: "be all the more eager to make your call and election firm, for, in doing so, you will never stumble."

5c such a wood Symbolism of the Forest Fire A forest fire is often used a symbol of great destruction in Scripture. The following passages use it to symbolize God's wrath.

  • Ps 83:14: "As a fire raging through a forest, a flame setting mountains ablaze."
  •  Jer 21:14: "I will punish you, says the Lord, as your deeds deserve! I will kindle a fire in its forest that shall devour all its surroundings."
  • Ez 15:6–7: "Therefore, thus says the Lord God: Like vine wood among forest trees, which I have given as fuel for fire, So I will give the inhabitants of Jerusalem. I will set my face against them: Although they have escaped the fire, the fire will still devour them."

9b come into existence according to the likeness of God Moral Application of Gn 1:26-28

Allusion to Genesis 1?

James uses the phrase kath' homoiôsin theou gegonotas, alluding to G-Gn 1:26: "Let us make humans in our image (kat' eikona) and in our likeness (kath' homoiôsin)." G uses the verb poieiô for creating, while James uses the perfect of gignomai. James is unusual in the biblical tradition in his reference to the "likeness" (homoiôsis); most references back to the creation accounts (e.g., Gn 5:1; 9:6) recall the phrase "in our image" (kat' eikona).

Humans Made in God's Image

James alludes to Gn 1:26-28 (humans, make in God's image and likeness, so as to rule over all other living creatures); cf. Gn 5:1. James' reference reinforces the similar allusion in Jas 3:7: humans are able to tame every other creature, alluding to God's commandment "to have dominion over" the rest of creation (Biblical Intertextuality 3:7b).

Moral Implications of the Creation in God's Image

Gn 9:6 reads, "Anyone who sheds the blood of a human being, by a human being shall that one's blood be shed; For in the image of God have human beings been made."  The implication is that it is a horrendous crime to kill someone who is created in God's image. Two justifications for this view are possible:

  • Attacking the divine image may in some way be considered an attack on the creator of the image.
  • The divine image makes human life itself sacred in some way and thus it is a serious offense to attack it (Peritestamental Literature 3:9b; Theology 3:9b).

James thus reads the creation account in Gn 1:26-28 through the lens of Gn 9:6.

Peritestamental Literature

5c–6a a small fire ignites such a great wood + tongue is a fire | Metaphor: Destructive Nature of the Tongue James' metaphor is common in Second Temple literature:

Fire as a Metaphor for Uncontrolled Passions

  • Pss. Sol. 12:2 "The discourse (lit: words of the tongue) of this wicked man takes many twists and turns. It is like a fire burning among a people, scorching their beauty" (Wright 2007, 142–43).
  • Fire was often linked with uncontrolled passions: Philo Decal. 173 writes that nothing ever escapes desire (epithumia), but, like a flame in a forest (hulê), it consumes and destroys everything (Colson 1937, 93). James implicitly links the uncontrolled tongue with uncontrolled passions (Jas 3:2,6–8; cf. Philo Leg. 222–24).

Small Spark Leads to Great Results

  • Ps.-Phoc. 144 (variant): "By a tiny spark a vast wood (hulê) is set on fire" (van der Horst 1978, 96–97).
  • Philo Migr. 123 "For a smouldering spark, even the very smallest, when it is blown up and made to blaze, lights a great pile" (Colson 1932, 203). Philo's metphor illustrates how the smallest bit of virtue can lead to extensive positive outcomes.

9b curse humans who have come into existence according to the likeness of God Moral Implications of Human Creation in the Divine Image In Second Temple Jewish texts one finds further expansions of the two moral implications of the divine image: (1) the one who disrespects humans made in the divine image disrespects the creator of that image; (2) humans should be treated well because they are made in the divine image (Biblical Intertextuality 3:9b; Theology 3:9b).

  • 2 En. 44:1-2 [longer recension]: "The Lord with his own two hands created mankind; and in a facsimile of his own face, both small and great, the Lord created [them]. And whoever insults a person's face, insults the face of a king, and treats the face of the Lord with repugnance. He who treates with contempt the face of any person treats the face of the Lord with contempt. He who expresses anger to any person without provocation will reap anger in the great judgment"  (OTP 1:170; Macaskill 2013, 164).
  • T. Isaac 6:33 "Jacob, my beloved son, keep my injunction which I lay down today that you preserve my body. Do not profane the image of God by how you treat it; for the image of man was made like the image of God; and God will treat you accordingly at the time when you meet him and see him face to face" (OTP 1:910).

11 sweet and bitter An Apocalyptic Sign: Confusion in Nature

  • 4 Esd. 5.9: the signs of the end times will show chaos in nature ("e.g., the sun shall suddenly shine forth at night"); one of the signs is "salt waters shall be found in the sweet" (in dulcibus aquis salsae invenientur; OTP, 1:532).

James does not allude to these eschatological signs, however. His point is to emphasize the regular order in nature as a foil for a disordered human nature.

11 a spring + from the same opening / Metaphor for Inner and Outer Logos? James' choice of a spring pouring forth through its opening as a metaphor for human speech is not original. Philo uses the image to illustrate the distinction between the inner logos (reason within the human mind) and the outer logos (speech). Philo here draws on a Stoic distinction between an internal logos (endiathetos logos) and a "spoken" or "uttered" word (prophorikos logos; e.g., →SVF 2.43).

  • Philo Migr. 71 "logos has two aspects, one resembling a spring (pêgê), the other its outflow; logos in the understanding (dianoia) resembles a spring and is called 'reason' (logos), while utterance by mouth and tongue is like its outflow, and is called 'speech'" (logos; Colson 1932, 173).


Comparison of Versions

3a See Following some miniscules, part of the Byz tradition reads ide ("see"). The TR reads idou: "behold!" V (si autem) follows the first hand of א in reading ei de ("and if" or "but if"). See above Textual Criticism 3:3a.

5c such ...such: TR Byz V (Explanatory Variants) James (as witnessed in Nes) uses the ambigious adjective hêlikon for both "so small" and "so large" (Vocabulary 3:5c). To clarify his meaning:

  • Byz and TR replaces hêlikon with oligon ("small") before "fire";
  • V adds "how great" (quam magnam) before "wood";
  • S uses two distinct adjectives: "small" (z‘wr’) before "fire" and "many" (sgy’’) before "forests."

8b uncontrollable

9a God Variations of the Divine Name  The Sahidic Coptic and some Syriac, Vulgate, and Boharic Coptic manuscripts, read theos ("God") instead of kurios (Textual Criticism 3:9a).

9b according the likeness of God Interpretive Expansion The biblical lemma in the Gloss. Ord. (V) ad loc. (col. 1287-88), as well as in the commentary of Dionysius the Carthusian En. jac. ad loc. (586) expand James' text to read "in the image and likeness of God," emphasizing the link to Gn 1:26.

Christian Tradition

1–4 bridle his entire body also Reason Controls the Passions Some commentators understood James to refer to the Greek philosophical principle that reason (logos) must control the passions of the body:

  • Ps.-Andreas Catena ad Jas 3:3–4 "If we drive back the high spirit (thrasos) of a horse with a bridle, and change the rushing course (hormê) of a ship with a small rudder, how much more should we guide the tongue by right reason (orthos logos) to what is good" (Cramer 1844, 8:19–20). Ps.-Oecumenius Comm. Ep. Cath. ad loc. repeats this interpretation (col. 484).
  • Ps.-Andrew of Crete Bios 7: James placed a restraint on the tongue and taught that one should both remain silent and speak according to reason (kata logon; Noret 1978, 52). See also Literary Devices 1:26.

6bc the tongue …staining the whole body: Body as the Body of Christ

  • Bar Salibi Ep. Cath. ad loc., understands the body as the church, the body of Christ, and the parts of the body as the members of the church (Sedlacek 1910, 96–97; Syriac: ibid., 126), referencing 1Cor 12:27. He takes, "among the parts of our body" to refer to the tongue's injurious speech against fellow Christians."

See also Grotius Annot. Jac. ad loc. (36).

7 every nature of beast ...has been tamed: Examples of Tamed Animals The tradition illustrates James' statement that all species have been tamed with specific examples:

  • Bede Ep. cath. ad loc. reports on stories, from Pliny and Marcellinus, about a tamed asp and tiger, apparently attempting to illustrate James' statement that every species of animal has been domesticated (Hurst 1985, 42; Hurst 1987, 206). The Gloss. Ord. (V) ad loc. quotes Bede's interpretation (col. 1286).
  • Erasmus Iac. Par. ad loc. "Crocodiles too are subjugated, vipers become mild, eagles and vultures are made friendly, dolphins are even enticed to friendship" (Bateman 1993, 156; Bateman 1997, 142). See also Lapide Comm. ad loc. (20:152).

7a every nature of beasts and of birds Allegorical Interpretation Bede Ep. cath. ad loc. holds that James wishes to to show that the human tongue surpasses various animals in their vices. Each point is supported by a scriptural proof-text:

  • the tongue surpasses beasts in cruelty (quoting G-Ps 64:3: some people "sharpened their tongues like a sword");
  • the tongue surpasses birds in fickleness and exaltation (quoting G-Ps 72:9: some people "placed their mouth into the sky");
  • the tongue surpasses snakes in deadliness (quoting G-Ps 140:3: "The poison of asps is under their lips"; Hurst 1985, 40-41; Hurst 1987, 206).

Gloss. Ord. (V) ad loc. quotes Bede's interpretation (col. 1286).

8b uncontrollable evil Dangers of Uncontrolled Speech

A Parallel in Hermas

  • Herm. Mand. 2.3 uses the same adjective, akatastatos, to describes slander (katalalia): "Slander is evil, a restless (akatastatos) demon, never at peace but always living in dissension" (239). James specifically condemns this vice of the tongue at Jas 4:11. On the close relationship between James and Shepherd of Hermas, see →James: Introduction.

The Dangers of Speaking Too Much

In his discussion on the dangers of speaking too much, Gregory the Great quotes this passage together with Jas 1:19 and Jas 1:26. He connects these texts with Jesus' teaching in Mt 12:36, "on the day of judgment people will render an account for every careless word they speak."

  • Gregory the Great Moral. 7.58 "If then an account is demanded for idle speech (de otioso sermone), it is very deeply to be considered what punishment (poena) follows after that much talking (illud multiloquium), wherein we sin by words of pride" (per superviae verba peccatur; Parker, 1:411; Adriaen, 1:379).

Augustine also often connected Mt 12:36 with these passages on speech from James (e.g., Augustine of Hippo Retract. pref. 2).


Literary Devices

12b Neither can salty [water] produce fresh water Concluding Aphorism James concludes his lengthy exhortation on controlling the tongue with a maxim, a common closing technique (see Jas 1:12; 2:13; 2:26; 3:18; 4:17).


Comparison of Versions

6d is flamed by Gehenna Interpretation of Gehenna S renders "by Gehenna" with bnwr’ ("by fire"). Isho'dad of Merv Comm. Cath. Ep. interprets this as a reference to eschatolgoical punishment: "burns in punishment from God" (Gibson 1913, 37; Syriac: ibid., 50).

6d wheel of birth Attempt at Clarification

  • In translating the phrase trochos geneseôs, S renders both meanings of trochos ("race-course" and "wheel"; Vocabulary 3:6d) and translates genesis as "generation": "the course of our generations that roll on like a wheel."
  • Isho'dad of Merv Comm. Cath. Ep. paraphrases, "[the tongue] devastates and destroys generations and tribes, as gradually when the former ones die, later ones follow, which are generated like the swift runners of the wheels" (Gibson 1913, 37; Syriac: ibid., 50).

Christian Tradition

2:14–3:2a Divisio Textus

  • Ps.-Andreas Catena groups Jas 3:1–2 with Jas 2:14–26 under the heading: "That a person is justified (dikaioutai anthrôpos) not from faith alone (ouk ek pisteôs monon), but also from actions (alla kai ex ergôn);  and not from each one individually, but from both together" (ex amphoion hama; Cramer 1844, 8:14).

See also →James: Medieval Divisio Textus.



2c body Connotations of "Body"

  • Physical body: for James, the term "body" (sôma) can mean simply one's physical body  (cf. Jas 2:16: needs of the body; and Jas 2:26: the body without the spirit is dead).
  • Metonymy for the whole person: sôma can also refer to the person as a whole (e.g., Mt 5:29:  "It is better for you to lose one of your members than to have your whole body thrown into Gehenna"). This is the sense in Jas 3:6.
  • Weak human nature: in this passage, the body is seen as the locus of the passions and therefore temptation to sin (Ancient Texts 3:2a).  Here we have a sense of human nature as weak and susceptible to temptation; cf. the Pauline sôma tês sarkos (Col 2:11) or sôma tês hamartias (Rom 6:6); cf. Rom 7:24). See also Ancient Texts 4:1b

Lapide Comm. ad loc. lists other options: James uses "body" to mean an aggregate group, hence "body of sins" or "body of passions" (20:79).

5c wood Forest or Matter The noun hulê has a range of meanings.

  • A dense growth of trees (a forest). But see Historical and Geographical Notes 3:5c.
  • A pile of wood, whether in nature or collected for use in building.
  • Most generally, the material out of which anything is made. Aristotle uses hulê to refer to matter in his distinction between matter and form, as in Aristotle Metaph. 1029a. Erasmus (in Iac. Par. and Annot. Ep. Iac. ad loc.) takes it in this latter sense, translating hulê with materia. Likewise the KJV: "Behold, how great a matter a little fire kindleth!"

5c such a [size of] fire ignites such a wood (Nes) An Ambigious Adjective The adjective hêlikos generally means "how large" (cf. Col 2:1), but can also mean "how small" (cf. Lucian of Samosata Hermot. 5). James (as witnessed in Nes) takes advantage of this ambiguity to contrast, "how small" (hêlikon) a fire with "how great" (hêlikon) a wood [i.e., forest]. See also Literary Devices Jas3:5c; Textual Criticism 3:5c.

10b ought not to be A Expression from the Classical Greek The classical Greek impersonal expression ou chrê is rare in Koine Greek, where it was largely replaced by dei. It does not appear elsewhere in the NT or in G.

Literary Devices

2f bridle his entire body also Long-drawn Metaphor of Bridling a Horse Jame again uses the Greek chalinagôgeô, meaning literally "to bridle a horse," first used at Jas 1:26; the word here sets up the image of bridling a horse in 3:3. James here draws on an extensive classical literary and philosophical background (Literary Devices 1:26; Ancient Texts 1:26b).

References to riders controlling horses and pilots controlling ships are common in Greco-Roman philosophical and moral texts as illustrations of the principle that right reason should control unruly forces, such as the passions. 

God's Rule of the Universe

  • Ps.-Aristotle Mund. 6 [400B] "as the helmsman (kubernêtês) in the ship, as the charioteer in his chariot, as the leader in a chorus, as the lawgiver in a city, as the commander in a military camp, so is God in the Universe" (theos en kosmôᵢ; Forster 1955, 402–3). Dio Chrysostom Borsyth. 50 = Or. 36.50) also compares the governor of the world with a charioteer ; see also Lucian of Samosata Iupp. Trag. 50. 

Application to Speech

7f every nature of beast human: Contrastive Comparison and Hyperbole In the previous verse, James established the meaning of "tongue": by metonymy, it stands for uncontrolled speech (Literary Devices 3:6a). Here James uses a contrastive comparison to emphasize the difficulty of controlling the tongue: although humans can tame wild animals, they cannot control their own speech. James' word choice creates an absolute contrast: every kind of animal has been tamed, but no human being can tame the tongue.

James' use of hyperbole to emphasize his point here is clear from the following, since he assumes that humans do have the ability to control their tongue:

  • Jas 3:2b: "If someone does not stumble in his words";
  • Jas 3:9-10 assumes that humans can and should avoid cursing one another.

It is unlikely that James literally believed that all animals have been tamed. Rather, James exagerrates, using hyperbole to drive home his point about the difficulty of controlling one's speech.

9 bless the Lord ...curse humans: Reiterating Central Themes of James: Contrastive Comparisons James' reference to blessing the Lord and cursing humans builds on several themes prominent in James:

Importance of Right Speech

See →James: Speech in James.

Link between Worship and Good Deeds

James closely connects worship of God and practical ethics, for example:

  • Jas 1:22-25: be a doer of the word, not a hearer only;
  • Jas 1:27-27: "true religion" bridles the tongue and cares for widows and orphans;
  • Jas 2:1-13: genuine community worship excludes partiality towards the rich;
  • Jas 2:14-26: true faith is empty unless completed through practical works.

Evils of Division

Blessing the Lord while cursing the humans is an example of what James calls double-mindedness (Jas 1:8). The person displays an inner conflict; he is divided, attempting to follow both values associated with God and values associated with "the world" (cf. Jas 4:4). This internal division is a variation of James' overriding theme that all division is sinful: his goal is unity and integrity both within each person and within the community. See also →James: Perfection / Wholeness in James .


Historical and Geographical Notes

6d Gehenna Valley of Hinnom, South of Jerusalem The name "Gehenna" (Greek: geenna) derives from the Aramaic and Hebrew names of the Valley of Hinnom, south of Jerusalem. See also Vocabulary 3:6d.

Ancient Cultures

9f curse Cursing in Ancient Cultures

Formal and Informal Curses

The curse (Greek verb: kataraomai; noun: katara): is a wish that harm or disaster befall another person. Motives for cursing vary and include envy or desire to avenge a past wrong. Other curses involve future actions, cursing those who would transgress some sacred law. This category may also involve a self-curse. Often a divine power is invoked to carry out the curse. Many formal curses were inscribed on thin lead sheets (Greek: katadesmos; Latin: defixio).

  • Mid-3rd c. AD epitaph from Phrygia: "If any one shall open the tomb, there shall be upon him the curses (katarai) as many as are written in [the book], on his sight and his whole body (eis holon to sôᵢma autôᵢ) and his children and his life" (Moulton and Milligan 1929, s.v. katara). Epitaphs such as this from central Phrygia often exhibit a similarity and possible influence from the curses in Dt 27-29.

In addition to these more formal, written, or ritualized curses, there were doubtless many informal curses.

Literary Examples of Curses

Following are some examples of curses found in literature:

  • Xenophon Anab. 7.7.48 "Seuthes cursed (katêrasato) the man who was to blame for the fact that the soldiers' wages had not been paid long ago" (Brownson 1922, 1:639).
  • Diodorus Siculus Bib. hist.  1.45.2: The Egyptian king Tnephachthus "pronounced a curse (katarasthai) on the king who had first taught the people their extravagant way of living" (Oldfather 1967, 1:161).

Ancient Texts

2a we all stumble Universal Fallibility

Meaning of "Stumble"

The most common classical meaning of this word is literally to stumble against something (Polybius Hist. 31.11.5, citing a proverb warning against stumbling twice against the same stone) or, metaphorically, to err (Plato Theaet. 160d: to stumble in one's mind).

Universal Sinfulness

This idea of univeral sinfulness is commonplace in Hellenistic moral discourse:

  • Seneca Clem. 1.6.3f "We have all sinned—some in serious, some in trivial things (Peccavimus omnes, alii gravia, alii leviora)…Even if there is any one who has so thoroughly cleansed his mind that nothing can any more confound him and betray him, yet it is by sinning that he has reached the sinless state" (innocentia; Basore 1928 375). cf. Sophocles Ant. 1023–24.

4b wherever the impulse of the steersman wishes Use of Stoic Terminology?


  • "Impulse" (Greek: hormê) can refer to any rapid motion, or an effort or strong desire. It is a standard term used in the Stoic analysis of human action; the "movement (phora) of the soul towards something" (Stobaeus Anth. 2.86.17; →SVF 3:169; Long and Sedley 1987, 1:317).
  • According to Plutarch Stoic. rep. 1037F, Chryssipus understood one's hormê to be his own logos commanding him to do something (logos prostatikos autôᵢ tou poiein; Cherniss 1976, 450). James seems to use it in a Stoic sense here. 


Wishing (Greek: boulomai) is often connected in Stoic and other Greek philosophical discourse with a deliberate rational choice, as contrasted with a descision based on passions:

  • Philo Leg. 3.223 "When the charioteer is in command and guides the horses with the reins, the chariot goes the way he wishes" (bouletai; Colson 1929, 452–53).

See also Ancient Texts 1:18a.

6c wheel of birth An Orphic Background? Some commentators see an Orphic background to this phrase. To express their concept of existence as an endless cycle of birth, death, and rebirth, Orphic literature used such phrases as the "wheel of fate and birth" (trochos tês heimarmenês te kai geneseôs), as in Simplicius In Cael. 2 [168B] (Heiberg 1894, 377).

7a nature of beast Use of Hellenistic Terminology The Greek word phusis, generally translated as "nature," can also denote what modern science might call a "species"; thus Theophrastus Hist. plant. 6.1.1 uses phusis to refer to different classes of plants.

For Aristotle, phusis is an auto-motive force that brings about growth oriented to a relative state of stasis (i.e., the telos): 

  • Aristotle Phys. II.1 "Each of them has within itself a principle [i.e., nature] of motion and of stationariness (in respect of place, or of growth and decrease, or by way of alteration). On the other hand, a bed and a coat and anything else of that sort, qua receiving these designations i.e. in so far as they are products of art-have no innate impulse to change."

See further Collingwood 1946.

7b tamed by human nature Common Stoic Topos: Human Ability to Control Nature The human ability to control and benefit from nature is a common Stoic topos.

  • Cicero Off. 1.22  "as the Stoics hold, everything that the earth produces is created for man's use" (ad usum hominum omnia creari; Miller 1913, 22-23).
  • Seneca Ben. 2.29  "[The gods] appointed us to be the lords of earth! Will anyone compare us with the creatures over whom we have absolute power?" (quorum potestas penes nos est; Basore 1935, 109).

Biblical Intertextuality

7a every nature of beast Classes of Animals Dividing animals into four classes is common in Scripture. Following are the four general classes together with their usual names in G:

  • Creatures of the sea: ichthus.
  • Creatures of the air: peteinon; orneon.
  • Creatures of the land: four-footed: thêrion, ktênon, tetrapoun.
  • Creatures of the land: crawling creatures: herpeton.

The paradigmatic reference occurs in the creation account of Gn 1:26-28, which employs ichthus, peteinon, ktênon, and herpeton. Many other lists occur, commonly using the four-fold division: e.g., Gn 9:2; Dt 4:17-18; Ps 148:10; Hos 4:3; Acts 11:6 (all from G).

James' use of peteinon, thêrion, and herpeton is standard in G. His use of the adjective enalios for "sea creatures," however, is unusual: it is unattested elsewhere in Greek Bible. An interesting parallel is Sophocles Ant. 345: pontou t' einalian phusin, "the watery brood of the sea" (Jebb 1891, 34-35), which occurs within a discussion of the human dominance over animals.

9f bless the Lord + curse humans / Application of Jesus’ Teaching?

  • James' teaching here may be an application of Jesus' teaching: "bless those who curse you, pray for those who mistreat you" (Lk 6:28); James and the Luke passage use the same words for blessing and cursing. Paul echoes this same teaching: "Bless those who persecute [you], bless and do not curse them" (Rom 12:14). See also 1Cor 4:12; 1Pt 3:9. Rather than quoting the teaching of Jesus, James describes the actual hypocritical behavior of his community and admonishes them: this should not be (Jas 3:10b).
  • Compare also James' further teaching on avoiding swearing oaths (Jas 5:12), a practice closely connected with cursing, as oaths were often accompanied with curses.

9a bless the Lord and Father Reference to the Liturgical Worship of God With the phrase "bless the Lord," James likely refers to prayers said during liturgical worship.

Blessing Formula

James likely refers to the blessing formula used in prayers:

  • "Blessed be the Lord" (eulogêtos ho kurios; e.g., G-Ex 18:10, G-Ru 4:14).
  • Both "Lord" and "God" are used in blessing formulas (e.g., G-Ps 41:13, "Blessed be the Lord , the God of Israel; G-Tb 3:11: "Blessed are you, Lord my God").

Other combinations of "Lord" and "Father"

For the combination of Lord and Father, see

9b curse Prevalence of Cursing in the OT In G kataraomai means to invoke a curse on someone:

Blessings Paired with Cursing

Passages often pair the promise of God's blessings with the threat of his curses:

  • Gn 12:3: "I will bless those who bless you and curse those who curse you."
  • Dt 27-28: Moses sets before the people the curses that will fall on those who break the commandments of the covenant law as well as the blessings for those that obey; cf. Dt 11:26: "I set before you here, this day, a blessing (eulogia) and a curse" (katara).

12a fig tree Symbolism 

= Security and Peace

Owning one's own fig tree was a proverbial sign of self-sufficiency and calm in ancient Israel: "Every one sat under his vine and fig tree, with no one to disturb them" (1Mc 14:12; cf. 1Kgs 5:5). See also Jl 1:12 for the opposite symbolism.

= Eschatological Fulfilment

The fig tree also figured in visions of eschatological plenty: "the people shall beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks...Every man shall sit under his own vine or under his own fig tree, undisturbed" (Mi 4:3-4; cf. Zec 3:10). 

= Israel as a Whole

The fig tree could represent the people of Israel as a whole (see Jer 8:13; Jl 1:7; Hos 9:10). 

= Use in the Gospel

Jesus' parables refer to fig trees (cf. Mt 24:32: sprouting leaves as a sign of summer); especially significant are references to their ability to produce fruit (cf. Lk 13:6-9). Jesus' cursing of a fig tree has been seen as a symbolic foreshadowing of the coming destruction of the Jerusalem Temple (Mk 11:12-14,20-25).

James Reworking Jesus' Teaching?

  • Mt 7:16-20: "By their fruits you will know them. Do people pick grapes from thornbushes, or figs from thistles? Just so, every good tree bears good fruit, and a rotten tree bears bad fruit. A good tree cannot bear bad fruit, nor can a rotten tree bear good fruit. Every tree that does not bear good fruit will be cut down and thrown into the fire. So by their fruits you will know them."

Jesus' teaching recorded in Luke connects this principle explicitly with speaking:

  • Lk 6:45: "A good person out of the store of goodness in his heart produces good, but an evil person out of a store of evil produces evil; for from the fullness of the heart the mouth speaks." See also Lk 6:44.

Moreover, Mk 11:12-13,20-21: in Jesus' enacted parable, he curses a fig tree that does not produce fruit.

It is unclear, however, whether James relies on Jesus' teaching here or on common themes of the Greek philosophical tradition (Ancient Texts 3:12a).

Peritestamental Literature

2a we all stumble Universal Sinfulness

  • Philo Deus 75 "there is no man who self-sustained has run the course of life from birth to death without stumbling" (aptaiston; Colson and Whitaker 1930, 47).

2b perfect man Completion and Wholeness (Perfection) In ancient Greek and Hellenistic Jewish philosophy, the "complete man" possesses all the virtues; the "complete man" and the "wise man" are closely connected (cf. Ancient Texts 1:4a; Ancient Texts 1:4b; Peritestamental Literature 1:4a; Ancient Texts 3:2b).

  • Philo Post. 88  says that the perfect man is one in whom intention, speech, and action are all in harmony: "bringing speech (logos) into harmony with intent (dianoia), and intent with deed (ergon); such an one would be considered perfect (teleios) and of a truly harmonius character" (Colson and Whitaker 1929, 377);  cf. also Philo Migr. 70–73.

3f horses + Ships: Hellenistic Judaism’s Appropriation of Images of Greco-Roman Moral Discourse Like James, Hellenistic Judaism appropriated images taken from Greco-Roman moral discourse, often using the images of the chariot driver and the ship's helmsman. See Ancient Texts 3:4b.

Human Rule over the Rest of Creation

  • Philo Opif. 88  "And so the Creator made man after all things, as a sort of driver (hêniochos) and pilot (kubernêtês), to drive and steer the things on earth, and charged him with the care of animals and plants, like a governor (huparchos) subordinate to the chief and great King" (Colson 1929, 73). 

Human Reason Controls the Passions

  • Philo Leg. 3.223-24: Mind (nous) should rule over sense-perception; images of the chariot driver and ship's pilot illustrate. See also Philo Det. 53; Philo Agr. 67–77.

  • Philo Migr. 67: The rational part of the soul must govern the irrational parts; analogy of the charioteer.
  • 4 Macc. 7:1ff applies the pilot image to reason's control of the passions: "Like an outstanding pilot (kubernêtês), indeed, the reason (logismos) of our father Eleazar, steering (pêdalioucheô) the vessel of piety on the sea of passions (pathôn), though buffetted by the threats of the tyrant and swamped by the swelling waves of torture, in no way swerved the rudder of piety until he sailed into the haven of deathless victory." 

God's Providence Directs the Created World

  • Philo Conf. 115: The steering of ships and chariots is compared with God's providential rule over the created world.

See also Literary Devices 1:26; Peritestamental Literature 1:26b.

6c wheel of birth The Instability of Life Second Temple Jewish authors used the word trochos to refer to the instability of life:

  • Ps.-Phoc. 27 "Suffering is common to all; life is a wheel; prosperity is unstable" (van der Horst 1978, 88-89); cf. Sib. Or. 2.87).

10a Out of the same mouth come forth blessing and cursing Relationship of Blessing and Cursing

Integrity of Speech

  • Philo Decal.   93 in his warning about taking oaths too rashly, echoes James' point, "For it would be sacrilege (ou hosion) to employ the mouth by which one pronounces the holiest of names, to utter any words of shame" (Colson 1937, 53-55).
  • T. Ben. 6:5-7 closely parallels James' horror of divided motivation and speech, and his insistence on integrity: "The good set of mind does not talk from both sides of its mouth (lit.: "does not have two tongues"): praises (eulogia) and curses (katara), abuse and honor, calm and strife, hypocrisy and truth, poverty and wealth, but it has one disposition, uncontaminated and pure (kathara), towards all men...The works of Beliar are twofold, and have in them no integrity" (haplotês; OTP 1:827; de Jonge 1978, 172-73).

Benefit of Both Blessing and Cursing

In contrast to James' wholly negative view of cursing, Philo sees its benefits:

  • Philo Her. 177-78: Commenting on Moses (Dt 27) assigning Jacob's sons to two mountains for both blessing (eulogeô) and cursing (kataraomai), Philo observes that "curses are equal in number to blessings and (if we may say so without offence) of equal value. For praises given to the good and censure given to the bad are equally beneficial, since, in the judgment of men of sense, avoiding evil and choosing good are one and the same" (Colson 1932, 371-73).



1–12 Use in Lectionary RCL : Proper 19, Year B.

1–10 Use in Lectionary

  • RML: Saturday, Week 6, Year 2.
  • BL : Tuesday, 32nd Week after Pentecost.

3:11–4:6 Use in Lectionary BL : Wednesday, 32nd Week after Pentecost. 

Jewish Tradition

9a bless the Lord Blessing Formulas in Rabbinic Prayers Phrases blessing the Lord are common in rabbinic prayers:

  • m. Ber. 7.3 "Blessed be the Lord our God" (Danby 1933, 8);
  • "Blessed are you O Lord"  is used frequently in the Eighteen Benedictions (Amidah).

9b made according to the likeness of God Moral Implications of the Divine Image Rabbi Akiva thus comments on the central biblical principle of Lv 19:18, "Love your neighbor as yourself":

  • Gen. Rab. 24.7 "R. Akiva teaches, 'you must not say, 'Since I have been put to shame, let my neighbour be put to shame.' R. Tanhuma said, 'If you do so, know whom you put to shame, [for] 'In the likeness of God made he him'" (Freedman 1939, 204).

Christian Tradition

2a we all stumble Universal Sinfulness

Universal Sinfulness

This passage was a common proof-text to demonstrate that all humans sin, including baptized Christians.

  • Augustine of Hippo Serm.   23.2  "Who then would ever dare to call himself perfect?" (perfectum; Hill 1997, 3/1:57; Lambot 1961, 309). Augustine of Hippo Enarrat. Ps. 55.10 applies it specifically to sins of speech: "Inevitably, then, each of us will slip up through our tongue" (labatur in lingua; Boulding 2003, 3/17: 92; Dekkers 1956, 2:685).
  • Augustine used it especially in his anti-Pelagian writings (e.g., Augustine of Hippo Pecc. merit. 3.13).
  • Bede Hom. Ev. 2.23 refers to the passage as a basic principle (principalis sententia) of universal sinfulness (Martin and Hurst 1991, 2:237; Hurst 1955, 356)
  • Jerome Adv. Jov. 2.2 employs the passage against Jovinian's argument that Christians cannot be tempted to sin after baptism. He employs it often against the Pelagian position that it is possible to avoid all sin (e.g., Jerome Pelag. 2.13; 2.15).
  • Bernard of Clairvaux Praec. et disp. 10.24 quotes the passage in admitting that not even monks can avoid slipping up in seeking to obey the numerous regulations of their superiors (Greenia 1970, 123).
  • Ps.-Augustine Poen. 1.(5).14; 1.(8).20 teaches that since sins are committed daily, it is necessary that penance be readily available as well.
  • Oecumenius Comm. Apoc. 8.21 quotes this passage in his interpretation of Rv 15:2: the sea of glass mingled with fire represents the righteous dead who stilll require the purging of sins, since no one is without sin (Suggit 2006, 134–35; de Groote 1999, 205).
  • See further Origen Adnot. Deut. ad 23:12–14; Augustine of Hippo Spir. et litt. 64; Augustine of Hippo Ep. 167.10; Augustine of Hippo Perf. 21; Leo the Great Serm. 49.5; 88.3.
  • Abelard Eth. quotes the passage in a discussion on whether it is possible to live without sin. If sin is properly defined as "contempt of God" (Dei contemptum), then it is possible, although very difficult (Luscombe 1971, 68–69).
  • The Reformed tradition continued use of this proof-text. WLC Q. 149: "No man is able, either of himself, or by any grace received in this life, perfectly to keep the commandments of God; but doth break them in thought, word, and deed," citing Jas 3:2-13. See below Theology 3:2a.

Types of Sins

Several authors conclude that James refers to venial or light sins.

  • Jerome Ep. 57.7 applies the passage to the shortcomings and human frailities of the translators of scripture.
  • Lapide Comm. ad loc. refers to Conc. Trid. Just. can. 23 (DzH 1573), which condemns the propisition "that a man once justified can avoid all sins, even venial ones, throughout his entire life, unless it be by a special privilege of God, as the Church holds of the Blessed Virgin" (20:136).

Many commentators connect these lighter sins specifically with the sins of speech that James turns to in Jas 3:3–12.

Moral Application of Universal Sinfulness

An awareness of universal sinfulness serves a moral purpose, writes Lapide Comm.: it can be the basis for a profound humility, and sharpen one's resove to commit few sins (20: 137).

2b–12 Divisio Textus

  •  Ps.-Andreas Catena groups verses Jas 3:2b–12 under the heading, "That the rash and undisciplined (propetês kai ataktos) tongue brings death to its possessor. It is necessary to master it for the honor (euphêmia) and glory of God" (Cramer 1844, 8:19).

See also →James: Medieval Divisio Textus .

2b does not stumble in word How Can One Avoid Sinning in One's Speaking?


The interpretive tradition often specifies ways in which one might possibly stumble in one's speech:

  • Bede Ep. cath. ad loc.  "deceit, slander, cursing, pride, boasting, making exuses in sins, jealousy, argument, heresy, lying, perjury, but even of worthless (otiosum) and also of unnecessary speaking" (superflua locutio;Hurst 1985, 36; Hurst 1983, 203). Gloss. Ord. ad loc. incorporates Bede's comment (col. 1284). The tradition often connects this passage with Mt 12:36.
  • Ps.-Andreas Catena (attributed to Basil) ad loc. catalogues some of the sins of the tongue: "In many ways sin is active by means of the tongue; in anger, in desires (epithumiais), in hypocrisy, in lawsuits (dikais), in deceit. And why is it necessary to go through in every detail the sinful things committed by the tongue? For from it come abusive language, frivolous talk, foolish talk (môrologia), speaking badly of one another (katalalia cf.  Jas 4:11) in ways that are not proper, idle conversation, false swearing (epiorkiai), falsely witnessing, all these evil things and still more are products of the tongue (Cramer 1844, 8:21–22). 

Sinlessness and Silence

  • Ps.-Andreas Catena attr. Cyril of Alexandria ad loc. and Ps.-Hilary of Arles Tract. Iac. ad loc. (col. 75) note that the one wishing to not go astray in speech must sometimes keep silent. Erasmus Iac. Par. ad loc. notes that nature "reminds us to use the tongue cautiously and with conscious control (circunspectem esse ac moderatum) by the wall and barricade made by the teeth and the lips" (Bateman 1993, 155; Bateman 1997, 142).
  • Lapide Comm. ad loc. writes, "The method and mode (ratio et modum), then, of directing the tongue to not offend is silence (silentium). Do you wish to learn to speak? Be silent and in silence consider what should be said and in what it should be said. For this reason, in all religions the discipline and cultivation (disciplina et cura) of silence is so great, since it is most useful, and indeed necessary, for guarding against offences and for the purity and and innocence of the heart" (20:138).

Other Applications

  • Augustine of Hippo Ep. 73.9 admits that in his own relationship with Jerome, he cannot claim to have lived up the perfection noted by James, and he asks Jerome's forgiveness if he has ever offended Jerome with his words.
  • Jerome Comm. Eph. ad 5:5 teaches that committing sins of speech (babbling or jesting) does not exclude one from the Kingdom of God, but it will cause one to be at a lower level (alluding to Jn 14:2 and 1Cor 15:41).
  • Francis de Sales Intr. 3. 27 quotes Jas 3:2b to introduce a section entitled, "Modesty (honessteté) in Speech and the Respect Due to Others," warning of the dangers of speaking an indecent (deshonneste) word. Even when the speaker has no bad intention, such words can have devastating effects on the hearer, filling him with unclean thoughts and temptations (Ryan 1950, 194–95; Mackey 1894, 230).
  • Bonhoeffer Leben applies the passage and Jas 4:11–12 to his rule that members of a community must never speak about one another in secret. This discipline will help to avoid forming judgmental attitudes about others (Bloesch and Burtness 1996, 94–95; Müller and Schönherr 1987, 78).

3f horses’ mouths ...ships: Various Interpretations of James’ Analogies

Moral Application

  • Gloss. Ord. ad 3:3: The interlinear gloss reads, "we put bits of continence (continentia) into our mouths so that we are obedient to our creator" (col. 1286).

Allegorical Interpretations

  • Bede Ep. cath. ad 3:4  reads James' illustration as an allegory: "The large ships on the sea are the minds (mentes) of men, whether good or bad, in this life; the strong winds by which they are threatened are the very appetites (appetitus) of the minds by which they are naturally driven to do something as a result of which they may reach a good or bad end; the rudder by which the ships of this world are brought around where the inclination of the helmsmen wishes is the very intention (intentio) of the heart by which the elect, after having passed through the waves of this world, arrive at the happy harbor of the heavenly fatherland" (Hurst 1985, 37–38; Hurst 1983, 204).
  • Lapide Comm. ad 3:3, interpreted in the mystical sense (mystice), the horse stands for the human body; the rider is Christ who bridles and directs the body by his grace (20:139–40).

5f claims great [things] …such a small fire: What Are the "Great Things"?

 Positive and Negative Interpretations of v. 5

Several interpreters see understand James to give an ambiguous interpretation of the power of the tongue in v 5:

Much of the Latin tradition (e.g., Codex Amiatinus, Gloss. Ord. (S), C) read exaltat (exalt) instead of exultat (claim or boast about great things). Bede Ep. cath. knows both readings, and connects them with an ambiguous understanding of the tongue: it can be used both for great good and great evil. He then contrasts the destructive fire of the tongue with the refining fire described elsewhere in Scripture:

  • Bede Ep. cath. "The tongue is a fire, because by speaking evilly it consumes the forest of the virtues. Hence the wise man says about the foolish, 'And the opening of his mouth is a setting on fire' (Sir 20:15). That saving fire which, devouring wood, hay, straw, (1Cor 3:12) enlightens the secrets of the heart, is contrary, namely, to this destructive fire. Holy teachers are set on fire by it both that they themselves may burn with loving and that by preaching they may set others on fire with fiery tongues, as it were (Hurst 1985, 38–39; Hurst 1983, 204–5).
  • John Climacus Scal. Summ.  connects this phrase with Jas 5:20: "One spark has often set fire to a great forest, and it has been found that one good deed can wipe away a multitude of sins" (Luibheid and Russell 1982, 258).
  • Erasmus Iac. Par. ad loc. notes, "In the same way there can come from the human tongue both the greatest benefit and on the other hand the ultimate ruin to human life. Do you not see that nature's fabricator signified this very thing [i.e., that the human tongue can cause great good and great ruin in human life] when he willed the human tongue to have the appearance and colour of fire?" (Bateman 1993, 155; Bateman 1997, 141). Erasmus also wrote an extensive treatise on the power of the tongue (human speech): "The Tongue" (Lingua). In this work, Erasmus quotes Jas 3:2b–12 together with some brief comments on the positive and negative uses of the tongue (366–67).
  • Calvin Comm. Iac. holds that James does not refer to arrogant boasting, but rather is stating that the tongue can in fact do great things when it is controlled, as illustrated in vv 3-4 (Owen 1849, 319–20; Reuss and Erichson 1896, 409).
  • Lapide Comm. ad loc. similarly sees the boasting not as ostentatious, but rather as impetuous and powerful speech that impels people to do great things, either good or bad (20:141–42).

Negative Interpretation

  • Isho'dad of Merv Comm. Cath. Ep. ad loc., in contrast, interprets, "this tongue, although it is small in its size and weaker than other members, yet is arrogant in pride, and does great things, and devastates and destroys..." (Dunlop 1913, 37; Syriac: ibid., 50).

6a world of unrighteousness Connotations of "the World"

Totality, or Collection of Evil

In the tradition, one finds kosmos understood more metaphorically with the sense of a totality or whole (Vocabulary 3:6a).

  • V: universitas iniquitatis ("a universe of iniquity").
  • Bede Ep. cath. ad loc. "It is rightly said of the uncontrolled tongue, however, that it is a world of wickedness, because almost all villianous deeds are either planned by it (as robberies, rapes), or carried out by it (as perjuries, false witnesses), or defended by it (as when some sinner by making excuses denies the evil he has committed and by boasting (ostentando) feigns a good that he has not done" (Hurst 1985, 39; Hurst 1983, 205). The  Gloss. Ord. (V) ad loc. (col. 1285) reproduces Bede's comment. 
  • Erasmus Iac. Par. ad loc. paraphrases, "The tongue is a world (mundus) and collection (congeries) of all the vices" (Bateman 1993, 155; Bateman 1997, 141).
  • Calvin Comm. Iac. ad loc. "because the contagion of the tongue spreads through every part of life" (Owen 1849, 320; Reuss and Erichson 1896, 409).

An "Ornamentation" of Evil

9b likeness of God Reflection on God's Image in Humans

Distinguishing Image and Likeness

  • Patristic and medieval tradition made a distinction between the two terms used in Gn 1:26: the image (G: eikôn; L: imago) of God (understood as a natural resemblance to God) and the likeness (G: homoiôsis; L: similitudo) God (understood as a more spiritual resemblance); see Irenaeus Haer. 5.6.1; 5.16.1-2. Some theologians taught that fallen humanity retained the image, but lost the similitude.
  • The Catholic post-Reformation theologians Estius Comm. ep. cath. (4299) and Lapide Comm., (155) however, see no distinction between the two terms.

Cursing Humans Means Cursing God

  • Bar Salibi Ep. Cath. "the insult borne by the image ascends to its prototype" (Sedlacek 1910, 97; Syriac-ibid., 127).
  • Lapide Comm.  "By cursing humans, we curse God, since humans are the work, creature, and image of God" (20:155).

Respecting God's Image

  • Calvin Comm. Iac. ad loc. comments, "For since God ought to be blessed in all his works, he ought to be so especially as to men, in whom his image and glory (imago et gloria) peculiarly shine forth. It is then a hypocrisy not to be borne, when man employs the same tongue in blessing God and in cursing men" (Owen 1849, 322-23; Reuss and Erichson 1896, 411).

Is God's Likeness Still Visible?

Later commentators reflect on whether the likeness of God in humans is still discernable:

  • Calvin Comm. Iac. ad loc. "Were anyone to object and say, that the image of God in human nature has been blotted out by the sin of Adam; we must, indeed, confess that it has been miserably deformed (misere deformata), but in such a way that some of its lineaments still appear (lineamenta adhuc quaedam appareant). Righteousness and rectitude, and the freedom of choosing what is good (bonique appetendi libertas), have been lost; but many excellent endowments, by which we excel the brutes, still remain" (Owen 1849, 323; Reuss and Erichson 1896, 411).
  • Wesley Notes ad loc. "Indeed we have now lost this likeness. Yet there remains from thence an indelible nobleness, which we ought to reverence both in ourselves and others" (602).
  • Estius Comm. ep. cath. ad loc. explains that the image and likeness of God (the two terms are interchangeable for him) "consists in the faculties of the soul, in the intellect, in the will, (consistit in facultatibus animae, intellectu et volutate), and what follows from this, the dominion over things (dominio rerum). This image has not been lost in humans, as this passage from James confirms" (4299).

11f Logical Interpretation The Gnomon Novi Testamenti summarizes James' verses thus :

  • v. 11: Two contrary principles cannot come forth from one principle (principium).
  • v. 12: No principle can come forth from any other principle, unless it is of that principle's own species (quod sua speciei sit; Bengel 1759, 1110).

11 spring Allegorical Interpretations The passage was given various allegorical interpretations:

  • Bede Ep. cath. ad loc. (Hurst 1985, 41-43; Hurst 1983, 207) and Lapide Comm. ad loc. (20:157) flesh out the implicit allegory in James: the fresh water is anyone who blesses God through praying or preaching his word; the bitter water is anyone who curses others. Just as when brackish water and fresh water are mixed, the whole become brackish, so too blessings are corrupted when mixed with cursing. They find the principle in 1Cor 5:6: "a little yeast leavens all the dough."
  • Ps.-Andreas Catena ad loc. sees in the mixture of fresh and bitter the mixture of divine things and human ideas in the heretical teachings of false teachers (Cramer 1844, 8:23-24).
  • Ps.-Hilary of Arles Tract. Iac. ad loc. "The spring is the heart of man, the flowing stream of water is his speech (verbum), and the lips of a person are the opening. The fresh water is sound teaching (sana est doctrina), while the bitter water is faulty teaching" (nequam est doctrina; col. 76).


2a we all stumble Universality of Sin This text was cited as a proof-text against the Pelagian position that Christians no longer needed to pray for the forgiveness of their own sins:

  • 418 AD: Syn. Cart. can. 7 (DzH 229) : Whereas some have said that Lord's prayer's petition for forgiveness does not refer to all Christians but only to those who are sinful, the canon replies, "but the Apostle James was holy and just when he said [Jas 3:2]. For why would 'all' have been added, unless this sentence pertained to the psalm where it is read [Ps 143:2].

Later teaching continues to see it as a proof-text for universal sin, including post-baptismal sin:

See above Christian Tradition 3:2a.

9b made according to the likeness of God The Catechism's Teaching on the Divine Image in Humans The Catechism teaches:

  • The image of God is the fundamental basis of human dignity, which distinguishes humanity the rest of creation (CCC 356-57).

  • The image is reflected especially in the ability of humans to have interpersonal relationships (CCC 357; 1702), and in their immortal soul, free will, intellect, their conscience with its orientation towards the true and good (CCC 1703-6).
  • The image of God in humans is connected with Christ ( CCC  359; 1701).
  • The image of God underlies the unity of all humans (CCC  360-61, 1934-35).
  • The image of God is damaged by sin, but can be restored through Christ (CCC 1707-9). 

See also Biblical Intertextuality 3:9b and Peritestamental Literature 3:9b.


5b–6 Also the tongue is fire Allusions in Dante's Divine Comedy Dante Div. Comm. Inf. cantos 26–27 allude to the images of the tongue and fire in Jas 3:5–6 (Bates 1989). In the eighth bolgia sinners are punished for giving evil advice— a sin of the tongue. Their punishment is to be enveloped in a tongue of flame:

  • Dante Div. Comm. Inf. 26.47–48 "These spirits stand within the flames / Each one is wrapped in that in which he burns."
  • Dante Div. Comm. Inf. 26.89 finds that Ulysses is punished for his deceitful words regarding the Trojan horse, his deceit of Achilles, and the theft of a statue of Athena. The flame enveloping Ulysses is described "as if it were the tongue of fire that spoke" (come fosse la lingua che parlasse).
  • Dante Div. Comm. Inf. 27, a tongue of flame envelops Guido da Montefeltro, who was punished for the false counsel that Pope Boniface VIII encouraged him to give.
  • Dante Div. Comm. Par. 25: the apostle James, considered by Dante to be the author of the Epistle (25:29–30, 77), also appears to Dante in a flame (25:37–38, 79–80), perhaps alluding to the Christian tradition's positive interpretations of Jas 3:5 (cf. Christian Tradition 3:5–6).

Visual Arts

5f the tongue is a fire Illustration of Dante's Inferno 26–27 Several artists portray the scenes in Dante Div. Comm. Inf. 26 and 27, where Dante and Virgil encounter the souls of those who gave false counsel, punished by being wrapped in tongues of fire (Literature 3:5b-6).

  • Gustave Doré (1832-1883), Canto XXVI. Seen here.→
  •  Bartolomeo di Fruosino (1366-1441), Dante e Virgilio con Guido da Montefeltro tra i Falsi consiglieri, ca. 1420. Biblioteque national, Paris. Seen here.→
  • Anonymous Lombard (ca. 1440), Dante e Virgilio sul ponte, Biblioteca Comunale of Imola MS 32, Italy. Seen here.→
  •  Amos Nattini (1923), Inferno XXVII: Gia era dritta in su la fiamma e queta. Seen  here.→



6a world of unrighteousness Extended Meaning or Semitism Kosmos may have a more extended meaning: "the totality" or "universality" of unrighteousness (Christian Tradition 3:6a). See also Vocabulary Jas 1:27c,3:6,4:4 and Grammar Jas 3:6a.

The phrase "world of unrighteousness" is a  Semitic influenced use of a genitive noun in place of an adjective: "unrighteous world"; (cf. Jas 1:25: "a hearer of forgetfulness = a forgetful hearer"). 


Visual Arts

1:1–5:20 James Depictions of the Author Depictions of James, the author of the epistle, in paintings, statues, manuscript illustrations, engravings, woodcuts, and embroidery on liturgical vestments are particularly prominent in the Middle Ages. A common consensus of the artists is that the author of the epistle is James the Just, leader of the Jerusalem church; he is typically further identified with James, son of Alphaeus, one of Jesus' Twelve (Mk 3:18), and "James the Less" (Mk 15:40). The iconography of James draws particularly on accounts of James recorded in Eusebius of Cesarea Hist. eccl. 23 and Jerome Vir. ill. 2, who in turn draw on accounts from Clement of Alexandria and Hegesipus. See also →James: Introduction

Several prominent features of these portrayals may be noted:

  • Following the tradition that he was the first bishop of Jerusalem, James is often portrayed anachronistically in bishop's vestments.
  • James is often portrayed holding a fuller's club, alluding to the tradition that James was beaten to death with a such a club. Variations show him holding different types of clubs. Another related tradition shows James holding a bow such as one used by hat-makers of the Middle Ages.
  • James bears a striking physical resemblance to his brother Jesus.
  • One artistic tradition, based on accounts found in the preface to the Gloss. Ord. and de Voragine Leg. aur., portrays the infant James as part of a large extended family. According to this legend, St. Anne, mother of the Virgin Mary, had three children named Mary with three different husbands. James and his brothers Joses (Joseph), Simon, and Jude (cf. Mk 6:3) are the sons of Mary (daughter of Anne and Cleophas; cf. Jn 19:25) and Alphaeus (cf. Mk 3:18). James and his brothers are thus cousins of Jesus (son of Mary, daughter of Anne and Joachim) and of St. John the Evangelist and James the Greater (sons of Mary, daughter of Anne and Salomas).

The following images are noteworthy:

  • A painting of James in the Armenian Sts. James Cathedral, Jerusalem: James is dressed in episcopal robes, wears a miter and holds a crozier (Gowler 2014, 54).
  • Blessed James Apostle. In the Stav. Bib. (1093-97) illuminations of the apostle James are at the introduction to the Catholic epistles (f. 197 r→) and at the beginning of his epistle (f. 197 v→.). The apostle stands, holding a book.
  • Apostle James the Less, statue, south portal of Chartres Cathedral, early 13th century.

Anonymous, James Among Other Apostles (sculpture on limestone, early 13th c.),  South Portal, Chartres Cathedral, France

© D.R. Photo Mary Ann Sullivan→ 

James holds a club.

  • Leonardo da Vinci (1495-98), The Last Supper, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan. 

Giampietrino (1495–1549), The Last Supper (oil on canvas, ca. 1520, after Leonardo da Vinci [1452–1519], The Last Supper [1495-1498]),  298 cm x 770 cm

Royal Academy of Arts, London, exhib. Magdalen College, Oxford

Public Domain © Wikicommons→ 

James, who resembles his brother Jesus, is second from his left. This full-scale copy was the main source for the— unfortunate—twenty-year restoration of the original (1978–1998). It includes several lost details such as Christ's feet, the transparent glass decanters on the table, and the floral motifs of the tapestries that decorate the room's interior.  It was first mentioned in 1626 by the author Bartolomeo Sanese as hanging in the Certosa di Pavia, a monastery near Pavia, Italy, but it is unlikely that it was intended for this location. At some point, the upper third of the picture was cut off, and the width was reduced. Giampietrino is thought to have worked closely with Leonardo when he was in Milan. A very fine, full-size copy of this painting, before it was cut down, is installed at Tongerlo Abbey in Westerlo, near Antwerp, Belgium. 

  • Lucas Cranach the Elder (1509), Infant Saint James among his relations, a triptych in the Stadelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt, Germany. The infant Jesus, his mother Mary, and Mary's mother St. Anne are portrayed in the center. To the right is St. Anne's other daughter Mary, her husband Zebedee, and sons John the Evangelist and James the Greater. To the left is another of St. Anne's daughters named Mary with her husband Alphaeus; their children James, Joses (Joseph), Simon, and Jude are in the left and center panels.

Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472–1553), The Holy Kinship, (mixed media on lime, Wittenberg, 1509), Altarpiece, central panel: 100.4 × 121.1 cm; wings: 40 × 120 cm

Städel Museum — 1398, Frankfurt am Main

Public Domain © Wikicommons→

The side and central panels describe a a great hall with blue grey walls and three-colored tiles. In the side panels are depicted the half sisters of Virgin Mary, called after their fathers Mary Cleophas (left) and Mary Salome (right) together with their husbands.

Left panel: St. Mary Cleophas and Alphaeus (with the features of Friedrich the Wise with their two sons, the Apostles St. James the Less (at her breast) and Joseph Justus, called St. Barnabas, as annunciator of the Gospel of Matthew depicted with a book.

Central panel: Joseph, who seems to seems to sleep, the Virgin, dressed in blue with yellow lining, Anna and the Christ Child on her knee, who is stretching out his hand towards an apple given to him by Virgin Mary. Anna's three husbands following de Voragine Leg. aur. are shown in the background in the matroneum: on the left Joachim, who is attracted by the holy women in front of him and whose relation is also shown by the corresponding blue and yellow color of his dress, Cleophas (with the physiognomy and chain of Emperor Maximilian I and Salomas, with the physiognomy of Sixtus Oelhafen von Schöllenbach, secretary of Friedrich III, Maximilian I and Karl V), who are talking to each other. There is an architectural structure by a great stone bench in the foreground of the central panel with two marble columns on the sides, over which is strectched a cloth of gold. On the right column is a tablet with date and signature: [LVCAS CHRONVS FACIEBAT ANNO 1509. The parapet of the matroneum is decorated by a sculptured frieze with dancing putti holding six escutcheons with the six fields of Electorate of Saxony. In the hall are shown the 17 members of the Holy Kinship. In the central panel are shown two more children of Mary Cleophas and Alpheus, the Apostles Simon, patron saint of weavers, dyers, tanners and saddlers and Jude, who went on mission and suffered their martyrdom together and therefore are regularly depicted together.

Right panel: St. Mary Salome and Zebedee (with the features of Frederick III, Elector of Saxony, and his brother Herzog Johann der Beständige). St. Mary Salome, dressed in gold with dark red lining, is combing her son Saint James the Greater and while Saint John the Evangelist is hiding in her dress.

  • Paolo Veronese (Caliari) James as Bishop (1500s). Burghley House Collection, Lincolnshire, UK. The Bridgeman Art Library. James with crozier and miter, holding a book.

Paolo Veronese Cagliari (1528-1888), Saint James, (oil on canvas, ca. 1578), 200 X 85 cm, One of the volets of the organ of the church of San Jacopo, Murano, Venice — the other is a portrait of St. Augustine.

Burghley House Collection, Lincolnshire, UK, © A Graduate of Pomona→

  • Saint James the Less, painting by El Greco (c. 1612), Museo del Greco, Toledo, Spain. 

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El Greco (Domenikos Theotokópoulos) 1541-1614, The Apostle James the Greater, (Oil on canvas, 1610-1614), 100 cm X 80 cm

 Museo de El Greco→ (Toledo, Spain), © Wikicommons, 

James is shown holding a Bible, symbolizing his status as a scriptural writer, in one hand. James is depicted in the Mannerist style with elongated form and without any of the traditional iconographic symbols

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Nicolò Bambini (1651-1736), San Giacomo Minore (Oil on canvas, 1722-1723), Communion of St James (Series of the Twelve Apostles), Presbytery: right wall, center, Saint Stae,Venezia, © Chorus Venezia→ 

The risen Jesus appears to James and breaks bread with him (based on an account recorded in Jerome Vir. ill. 2, said to be drawn from the Gospel according to the Hebrews).

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Angelo de' Rossi (1671 – 1715), Jacobus Minor (Sculpture on marble, 1710-1711), Gli Apostoli, (h: 424 cm), Nef, San Giovanni in Laterano, Roma, © Wikicommons

James holds a book and club.

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James Tissot (French, 1836-1902), James the Lesser, (Opaque watercolor over graphite on gray wove paper, 1886-1894), 30.6 x 23.5 cm, Brooklyn Museum, 00.159.237, © Brooklyn Museum photograph, 2008

James, resembling Jesus, prayers on his knees with outstretched arms. It perhaps reflects Hegesippus' statement that James spent so much time in prayer that his knees were as hard as a camel's.

Eastern Orthodox traditions

  • James the Just, Russian icon, 16th century. Novgorod. James is depicted in episcopal robes and holds a book.

Anonymous, James the Just, (pigments on wood, mid. 16th c.), icon, Novgorod or Moskow, Novgorod

Public Domain © Wikicommons→,

The inscription bearing the name of the saint has disappeared, but the iconography—facial features and beard shape —suggest that the icon is of James. Byzantine art places him among the founding fathers of the Church. As the creator of the first liturgy containing memorial services and the author of the message, which speaks of the healing power of prayer (Jas 5:14-16), he was also worshipped in ancient times as a healer. In Novgorod, James is prayed for the end of the epidemics. In sacred iconography, the representations of James of Jerusalem alone are very rare. We know the icons of Novgorod in which he is represented with other saints: Nicholas the Thaumaturgist, James the brother of God, Ignatius the bearer of God, end of the 15th c.; James the brother of God, Cosmas and Damian, 2nd quarter of the 16th c. The icon comes from the best workshops in Moscow or Novgorod.

  • Martyrdom of James the Just. Illustration from the Menologion of Basil II. (PG 117:6-612). Late 10th, early 11th c. AD. Vatican Library. 1613. Image 131.→  

For discussion of visual depictions, see Gowler 2014, 53-62; Bedford 1911.

Christian Tradition

2b perfect man The Meaning of "Perfect" Commentators try to clarify what James means by "perfect," especially since James has just insisted that all people stumble in many ways.

  • Perfection in forgiveness of sin: Bede Ep. cath. ad loc. asks, "How can he say that the man is perfect who does not offend in word, when he has just said, 'We all offend in many things'?" Bede explains that although the elect (electus) righteous may sin lightly (e.g., by frailty of flesh or ignorance), they remain righteous because "there is the daily remedy of prayers and good works that quickly raises up the righteous offender" (Hurst 1985, 36; Hurst 1983, 202).
  • Perfection in this life. Aquinas ST 2-2.184.2 ad. 2 considers the question of whether perfection (perfectio) is possible in this life. He answers that a certain type of perfection is possible (as demanded in Mt 5:48), and this perfection consists in love (caritas). Thus, "Those who are perfect (perfecti) in this life are said to 'offend in many things' with regard to venial sins (peccata venialia), which result from the weakness (infirmitate) of the present life: and in this respect they have an 'imperfect being' (aliquid imperfectum) in comparison with the perfection of heaven" (English Dominicans 1947, 4:1945).
  • Perfection in virtue. Ps.-Hilary of Arles Tract. Iac. "For perfection consists in justice; justice is cultivated by silence. Thus he holds that perfection is temperance in speech" (continentia in verbo; col. 75). See also Pelagius Ep. Dem. 19.3.

9f we bless ...we curse: Condemnation of Hypocrisy and Double-mindedness

Hypocritical Speech as an Example of Doublemindedness

Early Christian traditions parallel James in connecting inconsistent, hypocritical speech with "doublemindedness" (cf. Jas 1:8; 4:8)

  • Did. 2.4 "Do not be of two minds (dignômôn) or speak from both sides of your mouth" (diglôssos; see also Barn. 19:7).  See also Peritestamental Literature 3:10a.
  • Herm. Sim. 9.18.3 associates those who are doubleminded (dipsuchoi) with hypocrites and blasphemers (i.e., those who misuse their speech; Ehrman 2003, 2:437).

Erasmus on Religious Hypocrisy

  • Erasmus Iac. Par. ad loc. focuses on religious hypocrisy: "The tongue does the most harm under the pretext of godliness when it mixes things which cannot cohere. For the person who is cruel and slanderous (maledicus) towards a neighbor cannot be pious (pius) towards God. And yet with this organ we praise God, calling him Father, and with the same organ we revile and slander a neighbour created in the likeness of God (ad Dei similitudinem conditum). We use the tongue to sing to God from whom all blessings flow and we use it also to inflict the worst evils on another person as if the insult done to him is of no concern to God the creator. God's station is neither increased by our praises nor his person harmed by our insults. But a man can be either harmful or helpful to another man, and what we do to him, God reckons to be done to himself as well (hoc Deus putat ad se pertinere). Let no one believe, therefore, that the hymns which one produces with the tongue, not from the heart, are pleasing to God when that same tongue spews the poison of slander upon his neighbour" (Bateman 1993, 156; Bateman 1997, 142).

Erasmus' Application to Clerics

  • Erasmus Iac. Par. applies this passage to the clerics of his day in a long and unsparing passage: "They have on their lips, 'Our Father,' even as they pierce again and again with the lance of their tongue the neighbor for whose salvation Christ was pierced. They preach the goodness of God who saved mankind by his mercy while they themselves are quick to destroy it with the poison of their tongue....even from the same pulpit they begin with the praises of God and then launch into the denigration of a neighbor (infamiam proximi). The ruin with which they infect the minds of the audience is all the greater because under the fictitious appearance of religion they cover and disguise the deadly poison which they draw forth from their infected heart through the organ of the tongue. I ask you, brothers, does this not remind you of some kind of monster?" (prodigii simile videtur; Bateman 1993, 157; Bateman 1997, 143-44).

The Wages of Cursing

  • Ps.-Andreas Catena "Let nothing bitter be cast out of a mouth deemed worthy of such divine worship (mustagôgia); the tongue should not associate anything so distasteful with a holy (theion) mouth. Let us keep it pure (kathara). Let us bring forth no curses (aras) from it. For if even those who speak abusively will not inherit the kingdom of God (1Cor 6:10), how much more so those who curse (kateuchomenoi)?…Can you approach God to make an offering, and curse others?  Unless you forgive, it will not be forgiven you…" (allusion to Mt 6:15; Cramer 1844, 8:23).

12 Allegorical Interpretations of Figs, Olives, and Grapes According to Bede Ep. cath. ad loc.:

  • The fig tree stands for making excuses for sins (cf. Adam and Eve covering themselves with fig leaves after their sin: Gn 3:7).
  • The olives stand for the fruits of mercy; cf. Ps 52:8 (G-Ps 51:10): anyone who makes excuses for sin does not busy himself with works of mercy.
  • The grapevine stands for inebriation with divine love: a person drunk with divine love blames no one else but himself for his sins (Hurst 1985, 42-43; Hurst 1983, 207-8).


Ancient Cultures

12a grapevine Cultural Value of the Grape Grapes were an important crop in ancient Mediterranean cultures. They were eaten directly, dried to make raisins, used as a source of leaven for baking bread, or fermented to make wine, a dietary staple. A good harvest from the grapevines was essential to the prosperity of these societies (cf. Jl 2:22).  Sir 39:31 (G-39:26) identifies "the blood of the grape" as one of the basic necessities of life.

Biblical Intertextuality

10a Out of the same mouth Integrity in Speech Many biblical passages support James' point that human speech must be integral and not divided:

  • Sir 28:12-13 too notes the duplicitous nature of the tongue: "If you blow on a spark, it turns into flame, if you spit on it, it dies out; yet both you do with your mouth! Cursed be gossips and the double-tongued, for they destroy the peace of many."
  • Ps 62:4 (G-62:4): "with their mouth they would bless, and curse with their heart" ; quoted in 1 Clem. 15:3. See also Biblical Intertextuality 3:9a.



6d Gehenna Etymology The word geena is a Greek form of the Aramaic gé hinnam, which in turn derives from the Hebrew gé hinnōm, an abbreviation of gé ben-hinnôm (see Jo 15:8): the Valley of Hinnom.  See below Historical and Geographical Notes 3:6d.

9a Lord V S Nes: The Title "Lord" in James On James' application of the title "Lord" to both God the Father and to Jesus, see →James: The Title Kurios in James.


Biblical Intertextuality

2a we all stumble Universal Sinfulness The sinfulness of all humans is a common topos in Scripture:

  • Ps 14:3: "They have all gone astray; together they have become useless. There is no one who does good; there is not even one."
  • Eccl 7:20: "yet there is no one on earth so just as to do good and never sin."
  • Sir 8:6 (G-8:5):  "You should not despise a man who turns himself away from sin, nor reproach him with it. Remember that we are all subject to correction."
  • Rom 3:23: "all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God."
  • 1Jn 1:8: "If we say, "We are without sin," we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us" (this passage is commonly quoted in the commentary tradition on Jas 3:2 such as in Lapide Comm. ad loc.).

See Ancient Texts 3:2a.

2b stumble in word Controlling One’s Tongue The biblical wisdom tradition warns of the need to control one's tongue (Biblical Intertextuality 1:19c; Biblical Intertextuality 1:19bc; Biblical Intertextuality 1:26).

  • Sir 22:34 (G-22:27): "Who will set a guard over my mouth, an effective seal on my lips, That I may not fail through them, and my tongue may not destroy me?" 


Christian Tradition

6d wheel of birth Interpretations of “Trochos Interpreters understand the phrase to mean that the sins of the tongue affect the entire course of one's life: 

  • Ps.-Andreas Catena ad loc. explains that the phrase refers to the course of our lives. James "calls time a 'wheel' (trochos) because of its circular and cyclical form (trochoeides kai kuklikon schêma), for it rolls into itself" (Cramer 1844, 8:20–21).
  • Erasmus Iac. Par. ad loc. paraphrases, [the tongue] "keeps a person's entire life (totam vitam) from the cradle to extreme old age ablaze with the fire of every vice" (Bateman 1993, 155; Bateman 1997, 142).
  • Calvin Comm. Iac. ad loc. notes that "when other vices are corrected by age or by the succession of time, or when at leat then do not possess the whole man, the vice of the tongue spreads and prevails over every part of life" (per omnes vitae partes; Owen 1849, 321; Reuss and Erichson 1896, 410).

6d flamed by Gehenna Various Interpretations

The Devil's Instigation to Sin

  • Bede Ep. cath. : Hell refers to the influence of the "devil and his angels" who "always burn with hellish fire" (igne semper ardent gehennali) even as they tempt humans with vices (Hurst 1985, 39–40; Hurst 1993, 205).
  • Gloss. Ord. (V) ad loc. the interlinear gloss reads, "at the suggestion of the devil" (suggestione diaboli; col. 1286); cf. Aquinas ST 1.64.4.
  • Calvin Comm. Iac. ad loc. "Satan by the fans of temptations kindles the fires of all evils in the world" (Owen 1849, 321; Reuss and Erichson 1896, 410).
  • Erasmus Iac. Par. ad loc. "This evil was inspired (afflata est) from the fire of Gehenna which first infects the mind with evil spirits" (Bateman 1993, 155; Bateman 1997, 142).

Eschatological Interpretation

  • Grotius Annot. Jac. ad loc., Taking the present participle (phlogizomenê) in a future sense, Grotius understands James to refer to the eschatological punishment of those who sin with the tongue, referencing Mt 5:22 (de Groot 1830, 36).
  • Isho'dad of Merv Comm. Cath. Ep. ad loc. also seems to indicate an eschatological punishment: the tongue "also burns in punishment from God" (Gibson 1913, 37; Syriac: ibid., 50). 

See also Comparison of Versions 3:6d.

8a the tongue no human can tame Debate on Sin, Free Will, and Grace

Latin Tradition: James Speaks Literally

 Augustine reports that Pelagius had argued that this passage should be taken ironically, so that James is really reproaching his reader, "You can tame wild animals; can you not tame your tongue?"  Augustine, however, argues that James meant the phrase literally: No human is able to control his tongue, and this knowledge should drive us to seek God's grace.  

  • Augustine of Hippo Nat. Grat. 15 [16] "He [James] did not say that no one can tame the tongue, but that no human beings can do so. Hence, when it is tamed, we would admit that this is done by God's mercy, by God's help, by God's grace. The soul should, then, try to tame the tongue, and, while it tries, it should beg for help (Teske 1997, 232; Urba and Zycha 1893, 242-43); cf. Augustine of Hippo Serm. 55.1-2. See also Augustine of Hippo Serm.  16A.3, where the passage is applied to the sin of using God's name to swear on trivial points.
  • Bede Ep. cath. ad loc. comments, "This thought can be understood properly in two ways: both that no learned good man can tame the tongue of those who neglect to restrain themselves from foolish outbursts; and that there is no one who speaks who does not occasionally lapse (delinquo) by his tongue" (Hurst 1985, 41; Hurst 1983, 206; see also Gloss. Ord. (V) (interlinear gloss, col. 1288).
  •  Bede illustrates with the example of Job, who although he was a "perfect man" who reportedly did not sin with his lips (Jb 2:10), did in fact chide himself for his inappropriate speech against God (Hurst 1985, 41; Hurst 1987, 206).

Greek Tradition: James Speaks Rhetorically

  • Ps.-Andreas Catena argues that, based on the context of the passage, the literal meaning of "the tongue no human being can tame" cannot be correct. If James has just asserted that every species has been tamed (Jas 3:7), this must include the tongue. If James later asserts "these things out not be to be" (Jas 3:10b, referring to cursing others with the tongue), how can James assume that humans can avoid cursing if it is literally true that no human can tame the tongue? (Cramer 1844, 8:22-23).
  • Ps.-Oecumenius Comm. Ep. Cath. ad loc. concurs, insisting that "The tongue no human being can tame" should be read not as a statement, but rather as a rhetorical question whose answer is, "No, the tongue can be tamed" (cols. 487A-489A).

Syriac Tradition

  • Bar Salibi Ep. Cath. ad loc. adds a qualifying statement: one is unable to tame the tongue "when a person is far from the love and knowledge of God," thus implying that one can control the tongue with God's help  (Sedlacek 1910, 97; Syriac-ibid., 126).