The Bible in Its Traditions

James 1:2

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Count it all joy, my brothers, when you fall into various trials,

My brothers, when you have fallen into various trials, consider everything a joy,

MY brethren, take it as a joy to you when you enter into many and divers temptations;

2 when you fall into various trials Sir 2:1-5; Wis 3:5-6; 1Pt 1:6-7 All joy consider it Mt 5:11-12; Acts 5:41

Text

Literary Devices

2 fall into various trials Alliteration James repeats the initial "p" (as well as the "r" in the first two words) in the phrase "fall into various trials"  (peirasmois peripesête poikilois); the repeated sounds suggest the multiplicity of the traps of temptations and the difficulty of freeing oneself from them.

Literary Genre

2ff Exordium In agreement with Wuellner 1978, we see Jas 2:2–4 as the letter‘s exordium, that is, the introduction that presents essential themes that will be developed throughout the letter. Here James exhorts his readers to be attentive to the letter's major themes of developing genuine faith and becoming complete and whole.

Context

Ancient Texts

2 when you fall into various trials Trials an Opportunity to Develop Virtues The Stoics taught that trials should be welcomed as an opportunity to develop virtues:

  • Seneca De Prov. 1.2.4–6 "Be assured that good men ought to act likewise; they should not shrink from hardships and difficulties (dura et difficilia), nor complain against fate; they should take in good part whatever happens, and should turn it to good. Not what you endure, but how you endure, is important…God has the mind of a father, he cherishes for them a manly love, and he says, 'Let them be harassed by toil, by suffering, by losses, (operibus doloribus, damnis exagitentur) in order that they may gather true strength'" (Basore 1928, 8–11).

Text

Literary Devices

2ff,12 perseverance Introducing the Theme Jas 1:2–4,12 introduces the theme of perseverance, which is further explicated in Jas 5:7–11: the exhortation to wait patiently for the coming of the Lord.

Reception

Christian Tradition

2ff Application to the Martyrs Augustine of Hippo Serm. 159.1.8 applies this section to Christian martyrs: their patience has reached the point of perfection, since they despise the pleasures of the world, and do not fear hardship or punishment, but only love justice above all things. 

Suggestions for Reading

2ff Exordium Encouraging Perseverance This passage may be considered the Letter's exordium (Literary Genre 1:2–4).

Function

It has two main goals: 

Reception

The Christian tradition of interpretation clarifies James' meaning by distinguishing between different types of trials or temptations, as well as their nature and sources (Christian Tradition 1:2). It also offers deeper reflections on both the virtue of perseverance under trial (Christian Tradition 1:4a)—including the centrality of joy in the Christian life (Christian Tradition 1:2; Theology 1:2–4)—and the ideal of the complete or "perfect" Christian (Christian Tradition 1:4b).

Text

Vocabulary

2 trials Two Meanings The Greek peirasmos, with its cognate verb, peirazô, has two basic senses.

  • A trial, suffering or persecution from outside oneself (the most likely sense in this verse; cf. 1Pt 4:12). This meaning is regularly understood in both the OT and NT as a test that reveals the true nature or character of something or someone.
  • A temptation to sin that arises from within a person (the most likely sense in Jas 1:13; cf. 1Tm 6:9). See also Christian Tradition 1:2.

James employs the noun according to the first sense, but the verb according to the second (Jas 1:2–4,12).

Context

Biblical Intertextuality

2 All joy consider it Rejoicing During Trials

Joy as Characteristic of the Christian Life

Joy (chara) is often singled out as characteristic of the Christian life in the NT: Rom 15:13; 2Cor 1:15; 2:3; Phil 1:4; 4:4–7; Col 1:11; 1Pt 1:8; 1Jn 1:4; 2Jn 1:2. Paul describes it as one of the fruits of the Holy Spirit (Gal 5:22; cf. Rom 14:17; and 1Thes 1:6). Followers of Christ will especially have joy at his return (Jn 16:20–24). 

Joy in Trials and Suffering 

Joy in Sharing Christ's Suffering

The admonition to retain joy in trials or suffering is common in the NT. 1 Peter also speaks of rejoicing in trials, connecting trials with a sharing in Christ‘s suffering, "Beloved, do not be surprised at the fiery trial (peirasmos) which comes upon you to prove you…But rejoice (chairô) in so far as you share Christ’s sufferings, that you may also rejoice and be glad when his glory is revealed. (1Pt 4:12–13; cf. Jas 1:6–7). See also Col 1:24: "Now I rejoice (chairô) in my sufferings for your sake, and in my flesh I am complete what is lacking in Christ's afflictions for the sake of his body, which is the church."

Rejoicing while Suffering for the Faith in the NT
  • Especially close to James is 1Pt 1:6–7: "In this you rejoice, although now for a little while you may have to suffer through various trials (poikilois peirasmois), so that the genuineness (dokimios) of your faith, more precious than gold which though perishable is tested (dokimazomenos) by fire, may prove to be for praise, glory, and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ."
  • Jesus himself teaches in the Beatitudes, "Blessed are you when they insult you and persecute you and utter every kind of evil against you [falsely] because of me. Rejoice (chairô) and be glad, for your reward will be great in heaven" (Mt 5:11–12).
  • After having been flogged, the apostles "left the presence of the Sanhedrin, rejoicing (chairô) that they had been found worthy to suffer dishonor for the sake of the name" (Acts 5:41).

See also 2Cor 7:4; 1Thes 1:6; Heb 10:34.

Christian believers are thus exhorted to be joyful because their trials show them to be genuine followers of Christ, and because their suffering will lead to an eschatological reward. It is noteworthy that James makes no explicit Christological conections in his exhortation to be joyful in trial. These connections may well simply be implied in James' concept of suffering for "faith."

Reception

Liturgies

2ff Liturgical Reading from Augustine Augustine of Hippo Serm. 159.1 indicates that Jas 1:2–4 had just been read in the service; Augustine's main theme is Rom 8:30-31. According to Geoffrey Willis's tabulation of Augustine's lectionary, Jas 1:1–4 was read on the Feast of Martyrs along with Ps 42; 115; 141; Mt 5:7–11; 10:16–28; Lk 21:1–19; 1Jn 3:16; Rv 14:5 (cf. Willis 1962, 22–57). Note that some of these citations may not have been lections but antiphons or responsories.

Christian Tradition

2 various trials Liberationist Perspective From a liberationist perspective, Elsa Tamez writes that the trials endured by those in James' community involve the oppression by the wealthy and powerful, who have deprived the poor of their social and political rights (cf. Jas 2:6; 5:1–6; Tamez 2002, 31).

2 All joy consider it Comments in the Tradition

Luther’s Positive Evaluation

Luther consistently notes James' admonition to accept trials with joy with approval.

  • Luther Res. disp. indul. 58 cites the passage as an example of a "theology of the cross" (theologia crucis) that preaches the "crucified and hidden God" and teaches that "punishments, crosses, and death are the most precious treasury of all" (LW 31:224; WA 1:613).

See also Luther Lect. Ps. 60:8 ; Luther Lect. Heb. 2:9.

Application to the Disciples

  • Bede Hom. Ev. 2.13.123–129 applies the passage to the Jesus' disciples, who, after being flogged, "left the presence of the Sanhedrin, rejoicing that they had been found worthy to suffer dishonor for the sake of the name" (Acts 5:41).

A Complete Joy

Lapide Comm. ad loc. comments that James here refers to a complete, wholehearted, integral joy, comparable to the wholehearted devotion to God mandated in Dt 6:5: "Love the Lord your God with your whole heart"; cf. Augustine of Hippo Civ. 14.9; Augustine of Hippo Serm.  15.4 on applying this passage to Christians accepting trials with joy.

Context

Peritestamental Literature

2f trials …testing: Connection between Trials, Testing, and Perseverance James' connection between trials (peirasmos), testing (dokimion, see Jas 1:12 dokimos) and perseverance (hupomonê) are noted in other texts.

  • T. Jos. 2.6–7 "In ten testings (peirasmos) he showed that I was approved (dokimos), and in all of them I was patient (makrothumeô), because patience is a powerful medicine, and perseverance (hupomonê) provides many good things (OTP 1:819; de Jonge 1978, 146).

Reception

Christian Tradition

2 All joy consider it Causes for Rejoicing

  • Pelagius Exp. XIII Ep. Pauli ad Rom 5:3–4 quotes this passage in commenting that Christians should consider their trials with joy, in view of the eternal reward they will receive from God (de Bruyn 1993, 89; Souter 1931, 2:42); cf. Pelagius Exp. XIII Ep. Pauli ad Rom 12:12.
  •  Aquinas ST 1-2.38.4 holds that the greatest of all pleasures is the contemplation of truth. Thomas further connects the contemplation of truth with the love of wisdom (cf. Jas 1:5–8). Thomas cites Jas 1:2 as an example of how humans can rejoice "in the contemplation of Divine things and of future Happiness" (ex contemplatione divina et futurae beatitudinis) when they are experiencing trial, even to the point of physical torture (English Dominicans 1947, 2:755).
  •  Lapide Comm. ad 1:2 offers an extensive list of reasons why a Christian should rejoice in trials, among them: (1) trials tear one away from the love of this world; (2) trials are a sign of God's election and his acceptance of the believer as a child of God (quoting Heb 12:6); (3) trials assimilate the Christian to Christ crucified, and call forth his aid ; (4) trials take away sin and concupiscence, since they are a penance for sins committed and an antidote for future sins; (5) trials provide an opportunity to build up virtues (20: 16-17).
  • John of Avila Aud. Fil. 76: the Christian who reflects on Christ's passion, and wishes to imitate him, will accept suffering with joy, as James teaches.

Theology

2ff trials MYSTICISM The Spiritual Benefit of Temptation

  • CCC 2847 "The Holy Spirit makes us discern between trials (probationem), which are necessary for the growth of the inner man, and temptation (tentationem), which leads to sin and death. We must also discern between being tempted and consenting to temptation (cf. Jas 1:14–15). Finally, discernment unmasks the lie of temptation, whose object appears to be good, a 'delight to the eyes' and desirable, when in reality its fruit is death (cf. Gn 3:6)."

The Catechism proceeds to cite Origen on the utility of temptation:

  • CCC 2847 "'God does not want to impose the good, but wants free beings…There is a certain usefulness to temptation. No one but God knows what our soul has received from him, not even we ourselves. But temptation reveals it in order to teach us to know ourselves, and in this way we discover our evil inclinations and are obliged to give thanks for the goods that temptation has revealed to us'" (Origen Or. 29.17; cf. Origen's extended discussion in Or. 29).

See also Christian Tradition 1:2; Theology 1:13–15.

Liturgies

1–12 Use in Lectionaries — Calendar The beginning of the letter of James is often read on the feast day of James, brother of the Lord:

  • BL: October 23.
  • Georgian church: December 28.

1–11 Use in Lectionary RML : Monday, Week 6, Year 2.

Christian Tradition

1–12 Divisio Textus

See also →James: Medieval Divisio Textus.

Visual Arts

1:1–5:20 James Depictions of the Author Depictions of James, the author of the epistle, in paintings, statues, manuscript illustrations, engravings, woodcuts, and embroidery on liturgical vestments are particularly prominent in the Middle Ages. A common consensus of the artists is that the author of the epistle is James the Just, leader of the Jerusalem church; he is typically further identified with James, son of Alphaeus, one of Jesus' Twelve (Mk 3:18), and "James the Less" (Mk 15:40). The iconography of James draws particularly on accounts of James recorded in Eusebius of Cesarea Hist. eccl. 23 and Jerome Vir. ill. 2, who in turn draw on accounts from Clement of Alexandria and Hegesipus. See also →James: Introduction

Several prominent features of these portrayals may be noted:

  • Following the tradition that he was the first bishop of Jerusalem, James is often portrayed anachronistically in bishop's vestments.
  • James is often portrayed holding a fuller's club, alluding to the tradition that James was beaten to death with a such a club. Variations show him holding different types of clubs. Another related tradition shows James holding a bow such as one used by hat-makers of the Middle Ages.
  • James bears a striking physical resemblance to his brother Jesus.
  • One artistic tradition, based on accounts found in the preface to the Gloss. Ord. and de Voragine Leg. aur., portrays the infant James as part of a large extended family. According to this legend, St. Anne, mother of the Virgin Mary, had three children named Mary with three different husbands. James and his brothers Joses (Joseph), Simon, and Jude (cf. Mk 6:3) are the sons of Mary (daughter of Anne and Cleophas; cf. Jn 19:25) and Alphaeus (cf. Mk 3:18). James and his brothers are thus cousins of Jesus (son of Mary, daughter of Anne and Joachim) and of St. John the Evangelist and James the Greater (sons of Mary, daughter of Anne and Salomas).

The following images are noteworthy:

  • A painting of James in the Armenian Sts. James Cathedral, Jerusalem: James is dressed in episcopal robes, wears a miter and holds a crozier (Gowler 2014, 54).
  • Blessed James Apostle. In the Stav. Bib. (1093-97) illuminations of the apostle James are at the introduction to the Catholic epistles (f. 197 r→) and at the beginning of his epistle (f. 197 v→.). The apostle stands, holding a book.
  • Apostle James the Less, statue, south portal of Chartres Cathedral, early 13th century.

Anonymous, James Among Other Apostles (sculpture on limestone, early 13th c.),  South Portal, Chartres Cathedral, France

© D.R. Photo Mary Ann Sullivan→ 

James holds a club.

  • Leonardo da Vinci (1495-98), The Last Supper, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan. 

Giampietrino (1495–1549), The Last Supper (oil on canvas, ca. 1520, after Leonardo da Vinci [1452–1519], The Last Supper [1495-1498]),  298 cm x 770 cm

Royal Academy of Arts, London, exhib. Magdalen College, Oxford

Public Domain © Wikicommons→ 

James, who resembles his brother Jesus, is second from his left. This full-scale copy was the main source for the— unfortunate—twenty-year restoration of the original (1978–1998). It includes several lost details such as Christ's feet, the transparent glass decanters on the table, and the floral motifs of the tapestries that decorate the room's interior.  It was first mentioned in 1626 by the author Bartolomeo Sanese as hanging in the Certosa di Pavia, a monastery near Pavia, Italy, but it is unlikely that it was intended for this location. At some point, the upper third of the picture was cut off, and the width was reduced. Giampietrino is thought to have worked closely with Leonardo when he was in Milan. A very fine, full-size copy of this painting, before it was cut down, is installed at Tongerlo Abbey in Westerlo, near Antwerp, Belgium. 

  • Lucas Cranach the Elder (1509), Infant Saint James among his relations, a triptych in the Stadelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt, Germany. The infant Jesus, his mother Mary, and Mary's mother St. Anne are portrayed in the center. To the right is St. Anne's other daughter Mary, her husband Zebedee, and sons John the Evangelist and James the Greater. To the left is another of St. Anne's daughters named Mary with her husband Alphaeus; their children James, Joses (Joseph), Simon, and Jude are in the left and center panels.

Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472–1553), The Holy Kinship, (mixed media on lime, Wittenberg, 1509), Altarpiece, central panel: 100.4 × 121.1 cm; wings: 40 × 120 cm

Städel Museum — 1398, Frankfurt am Main

Public Domain © Wikicommons→

The side and central panels describe a a great hall with blue grey walls and three-colored tiles. In the side panels are depicted the half sisters of Virgin Mary, called after their fathers Mary Cleophas (left) and Mary Salome (right) together with their husbands.

Left panel: St. Mary Cleophas and Alphaeus (with the features of Friedrich the Wise with their two sons, the Apostles St. James the Less (at her breast) and Joseph Justus, called St. Barnabas, as annunciator of the Gospel of Matthew depicted with a book.

Central panel: Joseph, who seems to seems to sleep, the Virgin, dressed in blue with yellow lining, Anna and the Christ Child on her knee, who is stretching out his hand towards an apple given to him by Virgin Mary. Anna's three husbands following de Voragine Leg. aur. are shown in the background in the matroneum: on the left Joachim, who is attracted by the holy women in front of him and whose relation is also shown by the corresponding blue and yellow color of his dress, Cleophas (with the physiognomy and chain of Emperor Maximilian I and Salomas, with the physiognomy of Sixtus Oelhafen von Schöllenbach, secretary of Friedrich III, Maximilian I and Karl V), who are talking to each other. There is an architectural structure by a great stone bench in the foreground of the central panel with two marble columns on the sides, over which is strectched a cloth of gold. On the right column is a tablet with date and signature: [LVCAS CHRONVS FACIEBAT ANNO 1509. The parapet of the matroneum is decorated by a sculptured frieze with dancing putti holding six escutcheons with the six fields of Electorate of Saxony. In the hall are shown the 17 members of the Holy Kinship. In the central panel are shown two more children of Mary Cleophas and Alpheus, the Apostles Simon, patron saint of weavers, dyers, tanners and saddlers and Jude, who went on mission and suffered their martyrdom together and therefore are regularly depicted together.

Right panel: St. Mary Salome and Zebedee (with the features of Frederick III, Elector of Saxony, and his brother Herzog Johann der Beständige). St. Mary Salome, dressed in gold with dark red lining, is combing her son Saint James the Greater and while Saint John the Evangelist is hiding in her dress.

  • Paolo Veronese (Caliari) James as Bishop (1500s). Burghley House Collection, Lincolnshire, UK. The Bridgeman Art Library. James with crozier and miter, holding a book.

Paolo Veronese Cagliari (1528-1888), Saint James, (oil on canvas, ca. 1578), 200 X 85 cm, One of the volets of the organ of the church of San Jacopo, Murano, Venice — the other is a portrait of St. Augustine.

Burghley House Collection, Lincolnshire, UK, © A Graduate of Pomona→

  • Saint James the Less, painting by El Greco (c. 1612), Museo del Greco, Toledo, Spain. 

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El Greco (Domenikos Theotokópoulos) 1541-1614, The Apostle James the Greater, (Oil on canvas, 1610-1614), 100 cm X 80 cm

 Museo de El Greco→ (Toledo, Spain), © Wikicommons, 

James is shown holding a Bible, symbolizing his status as a scriptural writer, in one hand. James is depicted in the Mannerist style with elongated form and without any of the traditional iconographic symbols

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Nicolò Bambini (1651-1736), San Giacomo Minore (Oil on canvas, 1722-1723), Communion of St James (Series of the Twelve Apostles), Presbytery: right wall, center, Saint Stae,Venezia, © Chorus Venezia→ 

The risen Jesus appears to James and breaks bread with him (based on an account recorded in Jerome Vir. ill. 2, said to be drawn from the Gospel according to the Hebrews).

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Angelo de' Rossi (1671 – 1715), Jacobus Minor (Sculpture on marble, 1710-1711), Gli Apostoli, (h: 424 cm), Nef, San Giovanni in Laterano, Roma, © Wikicommons

James holds a book and club.

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James Tissot (French, 1836-1902), James the Lesser, (Opaque watercolor over graphite on gray wove paper, 1886-1894), 30.6 x 23.5 cm, Brooklyn Museum, 00.159.237, © Brooklyn Museum photograph, 2008

James, resembling Jesus, prayers on his knees with outstretched arms. It perhaps reflects Hegesippus' statement that James spent so much time in prayer that his knees were as hard as a camel's.

Eastern Orthodox traditions

  • James the Just, Russian icon, 16th century. Novgorod. James is depicted in episcopal robes and holds a book.

Anonymous, James the Just, (pigments on wood, mid. 16th c.), icon, Novgorod or Moskow, Novgorod

Public Domain © Wikicommons→,

The inscription bearing the name of the saint has disappeared, but the iconography—facial features and beard shape —suggest that the icon is of James. Byzantine art places him among the founding fathers of the Church. As the creator of the first liturgy containing memorial services and the author of the message, which speaks of the healing power of prayer (Jas 5:14-16), he was also worshipped in ancient times as a healer. In Novgorod, James is prayed for the end of the epidemics. In sacred iconography, the representations of James of Jerusalem alone are very rare. We know the icons of Novgorod in which he is represented with other saints: Nicholas the Thaumaturgist, James the brother of God, Ignatius the bearer of God, end of the 15th c.; James the brother of God, Cosmas and Damian, 2nd quarter of the 16th c. The icon comes from the best workshops in Moscow or Novgorod.

  • Martyrdom of James the Just. Illustration from the Menologion of Basil II. (PG 117:6-612). Late 10th, early 11th c. AD. Vatican Library. Vat.gr. 1613. Image 131.→  

For discussion of visual depictions, see Gowler 2014, 53-62; Bedford 1911.

Christian Tradition

2 various trials Two types of Trials / Temptations Many commentators attempt to reconcile James' positive evaluation of testing ("consider it all joy") with the implied negatative evaluation of testing in Jesus' admonition in the Lord's Prayer, "lead us not into temptation" (Mt 6:13). In both cases, the Greek peirasmos is used. Cf. CCC  2846; Theology 1:2–4; Christian Tradition 1:12a.

Two Types of Trial

The tradition regularly distinguishes between two types of trial / temptation (see also Vocabulary 1:2; Christian Tradition 1:13-14). Ps.-Andreas Catena pref. (1) and  Ps.-Oecumenius Comm. Ep. Cath. Jac. pref. (col. 453B) identify this as one of the letter's major themes: James teaches "about the distinction (diaphora) of trials (peirasmoi): how some are from God, and some are from humans' own hearts." These interpreters understand James to refer to the first type in Jas 1:2 and to the second type in Jas 1:13. Following are representative examples of the distinction:

  • Maximus the Confessor Quae. Thal. 58.3–4 distinguishes between peirasmoi that are freely-chosen (hekousios), "in accordance with the inclination of the will" (kata gnômên), and associated with pleasure (hêdonikos) (referenced in the Lord's Prayer) and temptations that are suffered unwillingly (akousios) and "contrary to the inclination of the will" (para gnômên)(referenced in Jas 1:2). Maximus' teaching is quoted, without attribution, in Ps.-Andreas Catena ad 1:3.   

The Nature of External Trials and Internal Trials

  •  Lapide Comm. ad loc. observes that the external trials may refer to (1) the various hardships of life, including hunger, disease, and cold; or more specifically to (2) the specific persecutions suffered by the early Jerusalem church in the time of James. Ancr. Wis. 4.35–37 lists among the trials sent by God: a friend's death, sickness, poverty, and other misfortunes.
  • Ancr. Wis. 4 identifies the inner temptations with "the Seven Deadly Sins, and their foul offspring."

 External Trials Sent / Allowed by God as a Test (the Referent in Jas 1:2,12)

The tradition typically identifies the source of external trials, either directly or indirectly, as God. God sends or allows these trials in order to test the faithful, and ultimately to strengthen them:

  •  Ps.-Oecumenius Comm. Ep. Cath. Jac. ad loc. comments that these trials (e.g., those suffered by Job or Abraham) are from God, sent in order to discipline and strengthen the Christian. One shoud not avoid such trials, "if possible, one should welcome them with perseverance and thanksgiving" (dia tês hupomonês kai tês eucharistias epispasteon). For when God is testing, he knows that doing this is for help and a declaration of victory" (col. 457).
  •  Augustine of Hippo Serm.  57.9 holds that the purpose of such testing (probatio) is not for God to know whether the person loves him (since God already knows), but to make that knowledge clear to the person himself. Cf. Theology 1:2-4.
  •  Calvin Comm. Iac. ad loc. "we must doubtless take temptations or trials as including all adverse things; and they are so called, because they are the tests (experimenta) of our obedience to God." For Calvin, the temptations are given by God as medicine to cure humans vices: "The Lord then afflicts us in various ways, because ambition, avarice, envy, gluttony, intemperance, excessive love of the world, and the innumerable lusts in which we abound, cannot be cured by the same medicine" (eodem pharmaco).

The above passages from Ps.-Oecumenius and Augustine are typical of the tradition in citing biblical examples to support the belief that God tests the faithful: Ps.-Oecumenius refers to the examples of Abraham and Job; Augustine cites Dt 13:3, "The Lord your God tempts (proves; tentat) you to know whether you love Him."

 Lapide Comm. ad loc. however, admits that such trials such as hunger and cold may derive from many sources: some from God, some from a demon, some by enemies, some by friends, some by nature.

External Trials Are Necessary and Beneficial  in Order to Live the Christian Life

  •  Ps.-Andreas Catena attributed to Chrysostom: "Tribulation (thlipsis) is a kind of unbreakable bond, an increase of love, a foundation of contrition and piety (eulabeia). Listen to the one who says: 'If you approach to serve the Lord, prepare your soul for temptation' (Sir 2:1). And again Christ said: 'In the world you will have tribulation (thlipsis), but take courage' (Jn 16:33). And again 'narrow and oppressive (tethlimmenê) is the way' (cf. Mt 7:14). You see that everywhere tribulation is praised, everywhere it is accepted as being necessary for us. For if no one receives a crown without this [tribulation] in external contests, without hard work (ponois), close attention to food, a disciplined way of life (nomou diaitêᵢ), and vigilance, and in many other ways fortifies oneself, how much more in internal [contests]?" (cf. Ps.-Oecumenius Comm. Ep. Cath. Jac. ad loc. col. 456b).

  •  Ps.-Hilary of Arles Tract. Iac. "Since the world is led through many trials (temptamenta) of cold, winter, and spring into blooming summer, so most assuredly a person goes through many tribulations (tribulationes) into the reward of eternal life, as Paul says, 'It is necessary for us to enter the kingdom of God through many tribulations'" (Acts 14:22; col. 63).

Context

Ancient Texts

2 joy A Stoic Virtue Under the heading of joy, the Stoics class the following sub-virtues: delight (terpsis); sociability (euphrosunê); cheerfulness (euthumia; see Jas 5:13).