The Bible in Its Traditions

1 Samuel 17:1–58

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Now the Philistines gathered together their armies to battle, and they were gathered together at Socoh, which belongeth to Judah, and pitched between Socoh and Azekah, in Ephes-dammim.

And the Philistines gather their armies to battle, and gather themselves to Socchoth of Judaea, and encamp between Socchoth and Azeca Ephermen.

Now the Philistines, gathering their troops for battle, assembled at Socoh of Judah. And they made camp between Socoh and Azekah, within the borders of Dammim.

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And Saul and the men of Israel were gathered together, and pitched in the vale of Elah, and set the battle in array against the Philistines.

But Saul and the sons of Israel, having gathered together, went to the Valley of Terebinth. And they positioned the army so as to fight against the Philistines.

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And the Philistines stood on the mountain on the one side, and Israel stood on the mountain on the other side; and there was a valley between them.

And there went out a champion from the camp of the Philistines, named Goliath, of Gath, whose height was six cubits and a span.

And he had a helmet of brass upon his head, and he was clad with a coat of mail; and the weight of the coat was five thousand shekels of brass.

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And he had greaves of brass upon his legs, and a javelin of brass between his shoulders.

And greaves of grass were upon his legs, and a brazen target was between his shoulders.

And he had plates of brass on his lower legs, and a small shield of brass was covering his shoulders.

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And the shaft of his spear was like a weaver's beam; and his spear's head weighed six hundred shekels of iron; and his shield- bearer went before him.

And the staff of his spear was like a weaver’s beam, and the spear’s head was formed of six hundred shekels of iron; and his armour-bearer went before him.

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And he stood and cried unto the armies of Israel, and said unto them: 'Why do ye come out to set your battle in array? am not I a Philistine, and ye servants to Saul? choose you a man for you, and let him come down to me.

And standing still, he cried out to the battle lines of Israel, and he said to them: “Why have you arrived, prepared for battle? Am I not a Philistine, and are you not the servants of Saul? Choose one man from among you, and let him descend to do battle alone.

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If he be able to fight with me, and kill me, then will we be your servants; but if I prevail against him, and kill him, then shall ye be our servants, and serve us.'

And if he shall be able to fight against me, and shall smite me, then will we be your servants: but if I should prevail and smite him, ye shall be our servants, and serve us.

If he is able to fight with me and to strike me down, we will be your servants. But if I will prevail over him, and strike him down, you will be the servants, and you will serve us.”

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10  And the Philistine said: 'I do taunt the armies of Israel this day; give me a man, that we may fight together.'

10  And the Philistine was saying: “I have reproached the troops of Israel today. Present a man to me, and let him undertake a fight against me alone.”

11  And when Saul and all Israel heard those words of the Philistine, they were dismayed, and greatly afraid.

11  And Saul and all the Israelites, hearing these words of the Philistine in this manner, were stupefied and exceedingly afraid.

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12  Now David was the son of that Ephrathite of Beth-lehem in Judah, whose name was Jesse; and he had eight sons; and the man was an old man in the days of Saul, stricken in years among men.

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13  And the three eldest sons of Jesse had gone after Saul to the battle; and the names of his three sons that went to the battle were Eliab the first-born, and next unto him Abinadab, and the third Shammah.

13  Now his three eldest sons followed Saul into battle. And the names of his three sons, who went to the battle, were Eliab, the firstborn, and the second, Abinadab, and the third Shammah.

13  And the three older sons of Jesse went and followed Saul to the battle; and their names were Eliab the first-born, and next to him Abinadab, and the third Shammah.

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14  And David was the youngest; and the three eldest followed Saul.--

14  But David was the youngest. Therefore, when the three eldest had followed Saul,

15  Now David went to and fro from Saul to feed his father's sheep at Beth-lehem.--

15  David went away from Saul, and he returned, so that he might pasture the flock of his father at Bethlehem.

16  And the Philistine drew near morning and evening, and presented himself forty days.

16  Truly, the Philistine advanced morning and evening, and he stood forth, for forty days.

17  And Jesse said unto David his son: 'Take now for thy brethren an ephah of this parched corn, and these ten loaves, and carry them quickly to the camp to thy brethren.

17  Now Jesse said to his son David: “Take, for your brothers, an ephah of cooked grain, and these ten loaves, and hurry to the camp, to your brothers.

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18  And bring these ten cheeses unto the captain of their thousand, and to thy brethren shalt thou bring greetings, and take their pledge;

18  And you shall carry these ten little cheeses to the tribune. And visit your brothers, to see if they are doing well. And learn with whom they have been stationed.”

18  And carry these ten cheeses to the commander of their thousand and inquire into the welfare of your brothers and bring the news of them to me.

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19  now Saul, and they, and all the men of Israel, are in the vale of Elah, fighting with the Philistines.'

19  But they were in the valley of Terebinth, with Saul and all the sons of Israel, fighting against the Philistines.

20  And David rose up early in the morning, and left the sheep with a keeper, and took, and went, as Jesse had commanded him; and he came to the barricade, as the host which was going forth to the fight shouted for the battle.

20  And so, David rose up in the morning, and he commended the flock to the caretaker. And he went away burdened, just as Jesse had instructed him. And he went to the place of the battle line, and to the army, which, in going out to fight, was shouting in the conflict.

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21  And Israel and the Philistines put the battle in array, army against army.

21  For Israel had positioned their troops, but the Philistines also had prepared themselves against them.

21  Then Israel and the Philistines put themselves in battle array, army against army.

22  And David left his baggage in the hand of the keeper of the baggage, and ran to the army, and came and greeted his brethren.

22  Then, leaving the items that he had brought under the hand of the keeper of baggage, David ran to the place of the conflict. And he was asking if all was going well with his brothers.

22  And David put off his provisions by the side of the baggage, and ran into the army ranks, and came and saluted his brothers.

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23  And as he talked with them, behold, there came up the champion, the Philistine of Gath, Goliath by name, out of the ranks of the Philistines, and spoke according to the same words; and David heard them.

23  And while he was still speaking with them, there appeared the man of spurious descent, whose name was Goliath, the Philistine of Gath, ascending from the camp of the Philistines. And he was speaking in these same words, which David heard.

24  And all the men of Israel, when they saw the man, fled from him, and were sore afraid.

24  Then all the Israelites, when they had seen the man, fled from his face, fearing him greatly.

25  And the men of Israel said: 'Have ye seen this man that is come up? surely to taunt Israel is he come up; and it shall be, that the man who killeth him, the king will enrich him with great riches, and will give him his daughter, and make his father's house free in Israel.'

25  And someone of Israel said: “Have you seen this man, who has risen up. For he ascended in order to reproach Israel. Therefore, the man who will strike him down, the king will enrich with great wealth, and will give to him his daughter, and will cause his father’s house to be free of tribute in Israel.”

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26  And David spoke to the men that stood by him, saying: 'What shall be done to the man that killeth this Philistine, and taketh away the taunt from Israel? for who is this uncircumcised Philistine, that he should have taunted the armies of the living God?'

26  And David spoke to the men who were standing with him, saying: “What will be given to the man who will have struck down this Philistine, and who will have taken away the disgrace from Israel? For who is this uncircumcised Philistine, that he should reproach the soldiers of the living God?”

26  And David said to the men who stood by him, What shall be done for the man who kills this uncircumcised Philistine and takes away the reproach from Israel? For who is this uncircumcised Philistine that he should defy the armies of the living God?

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27  And the people answered him after this manner, saying: 'So shall it be done to the man that killeth him.'

27  Then the people repeated to him the same words, saying, “These things shall be given to the man who will have struck him down.”

28  And Eliab his eldest brother heard when he spoke unto the men; and Eliab's anger was kindled against David, and he said: 'Why art thou come down? and with whom hast thou left those few sheep in the wilderness? I know thy presumptuousness, and the naughtiness of thy heart; for thou art come down that thou mightest see the battle.'

28  Now when Eliab, his eldest brother, had heard this, as he was speaking with the others, he became angry against David, and he said: “Why did you come here? And why did you leave behind those few sheep in the wilderness? I know your pride and the wickedness of your heart, that you have come down so that you might see the battle.”

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29  And David said: 'What have I now done? Was it not but a word?'

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30  And he turned away from him toward another, and spoke after the same manner; and the people answered him after the former manner.

30  And he turned from him to the other side, and spoke in the same manner; and the people answered him again as they had done before.

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31  And when the words were heard which David spoke, they rehearsed them before Saul; and he was taken to him.

31  Now the words that David had spoken were heard and reported in the sight of Saul.

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32  And David said to Saul: 'Let no man's heart fail within him; thy servant will go and fight with this Philistine.'

32  When he had been led to Saul, he said to him: “Let no one lose heart over him. I, your servant, shall go and fight against the Philistine.”

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33  And Saul said to David: 'Thou art not able to go against this Philistine to fight with him; for thou art but a youth, and he a man of war from his youth.'

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34  And David said unto Saul: 'Thy servant kept his father's sheep; and when there came a lion, or a bear, and took a lamb out of the flock,

34  And David said to Saul: “Your servant was pasturing the flock of his father. And there approached a lion or a bear, and it took a ram from the midst of the flock.

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35  I went out after him, and smote him, and delivered it out of his mouth; and when he arose against me, I caught him by his beard, and smote him, and slew him.

35  then I went forth after him, and smote him, and drew the spoil out of his mouth: and as he rose up against me, then I caught hold of his throat, and smote him, and slew him.

35  And I pursued after them, and I struck them, and I rescued from their mouth. And they rose up against me. And I caught them by the throat, and I strangled and killed them.

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36  Thy servant smote both the lion and the bear; and this uncircumcised Philistine shall be as one of them, seeing he hath taunted the armies of the living God.'

36  For I, your servant, have killed both lion and bear. And so this uncircumcised Philistine, too, will be like one of them. Now I will go and take away the reproach of the people. For who is this uncircumcised Philistine, who has dared to curse the army of the living God?”

36  Your servant slew both the lion and the bear; and this uncircumcised Philistine shall be as one of them, seeing he has defied the armies of the living God.

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37  And David said: 'YHWH that delivered me out of the paw of the lion, and out of the paw of the bear, He will deliver me out of the hand of this Philistine.' And Saul said unto David: 'Go, and YHWH shall be with thee.'

37  The Lord who delivered me out of the paw of the lion and out the paw of the bear, he will deliver me out of the hand of this uncircumcised Philistine. And Saul said to David, Go, and the Lord shall be with thee.

37  David said moreover, The LORD who delivered me from the paw of the lion and from the paw of the bear will deliver me out of the hands of the Philistine. And Saul said to David, Go, and the LORD be with you.

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38  And Saul clad David with his apparel, and he put a helmet of brass upon his head, and he clad him with a coat of mail.

38  And Saul clothed David with a military coat, and put his brazen helmet on his head.

39  And David girded his sword upon his apparel, and he essayed to go ,but could not ; for he had not tried it. And David said unto Saul: 'I cannot go with these; for I have not tried them.' And David put them off him.

39  And he girt David with his sword over his coat: and he made trial walking with them once and again: and David said to Saul, I shall not be able to go with these, for I have not proved them: so they remove them from him.

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40  And he took his staff in his hand, and chose him five smooth stones out of the brook, and put them in the shepherd's bag which he had, even in his scrip; and his sling was in his hand; and he drew near to the Philistine.

40  And he took up his staff, which he held always in his hands. And he chose for himself five very smooth stones from the torrent. And he put them into the shepherd’s bag that he had with him. And he took up a sling in his hand. And he went out against the Philistine.

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41  And the Philistine came nearer and nearer unto David; and the man that bore the shield went before him.

41  And behold, the Philistine came and drew near to David; and his shieldbearer went before him.

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42  And when the Philistine looked about, and saw David, he disdained him; for he was but a youth, and ruddy, and withal of a fair countenance.

42  And Goliath saw David, and despised him; for he was a lad, and ruddy, with a fair countenance.

43  And the Philistine said unto David: 'Am I a dog, that thou comest to me with staves?' And the Philistine cursed David by his god.

43  And the Philistine said to David, Am I as a dog, that thou comest against me with a staff and stones? and David said, Nay, but worse than a dog. And the Philistine cursed David by his gods.

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44  And the Philistine said to David: 'Come to me, and I will give thy flesh unto the fowls of the air, and to the beasts of the field.'

44  And he said to David, “Come to me, and I will give your flesh to the birds of the air, and to the beasts of the earth.”

45  Then said David to the Philistine: 'Thou comest to me with a sword, and with a spear, and with a javelin; but I come to thee in the name of YHWH of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, whom thou hast taunted.

45  But David said to the Philistine: “You approach me with sword, and spear, and shield. But I come to you in the name of the Lord of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, which you have reproached.

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46  This day will YHWH deliver thee into my hand; and I will smite thee, and take thy head from off thee; and I will give the carcasses of the host of the Philistines this day unto the fowls of the air, and to the wild beasts of the earth; that all the earth may know that there is a God in Israel;

46  this day. And the Lord shall deliver thee this day into my hand; and I will slay thee, and take away thy head from off thee, and will give thy limbs and the limbs of the army of the Philistines this day to the birds of the sky, and to the wild beasts of the earth; and all the earth shall know that there is a God in Israel.

46  Today, the Lord will deliver you into my hand, and I will strike you down. And I will take your head from you. And today, I will give the carcasses of the camp of the Philistines to the birds of the air, and to the beasts of the earth, so that all the earth may know that God is with Israel.

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47  and that all this assembly may know that YHWH saveth not with sword and spear; for the battle is the YHWH'S, and He will give you into our hand.'

47  And all this assembly shall know that the Lord delivers not by sword or spear, for the battle is the Lord’s, and the Lord will deliver you into our hands.

47  And this entire assembly will know that the Lord does not save by sword, nor by spear. For this is his war, and he will deliver you into our hands.”

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48  And it came to pass, when the Philistine arose, and came and drew nigh to meet David, that David hastened, and ran toward the army to meet the Philistine.

48  And the Philistine arose and went to meet David.

48  Then, when the Philistine had risen up, and was approaching, and was drawing near against David, David hurried and ran to the fight against the Philistine.

49  And David put his hand in his bag, and took thence a stone, and slung it, and smote the Philistine in his forehead; and the stone sank into his forehead, and he fell upon his face to the earth.

49  And David stretched out his hand to his scrip, and took thence a stone, and slang it, and smote the Philistine on his forehead, and the stone penetrated through the helmet into his forehead, and he fell upon his face to the ground.

49  And he put his hand into his bag, and took out one stone. And swinging it around, he cast it with the sling and struck the Philistine on the forehead. And the stone became imbedded in his forehead. And he fell on his face, upon the ground.

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50  So David prevailed over the Philistine with a sling and with a stone, and smote the Philistine, and slew him; but there was no sword in the hand of David.

50  And David prevailed against the Philistine with a sling and a stone. And he struck and killed the Philistine. But since David held no sword in his hand,

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51  And David ran, and stood over the Philistine, and took his sword, and drew it out of the sheath thereof, and slew him, and cut off his head therewith. And when the Philistines saw that their mighty man was dead, they fled.

51  And David ran, and stood upon him, and took his sword, and slew him, and cut off his head: and the Philistines saw that their champion was dead, and they fled.

51  he ran and stood over the Philistine, and he took his sword, and withdrew it from the sheath. And he killed him and cut off his head. Then the Philistines, seeing that their strongest man was dead, fled away.

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52  And the men of Israel and of Judah arose, and shouted, and pursued the Philistines, until thou comest to Gai, and to the gates of Ekron. And the wounded of the Philistines fell down by the way to Shaaraim, even unto Gath, and unto Ekron.

52  And the men of Israel and Judah, rising up, shouted and pursued after the Philistines, even until they arrived at the valley and as far as the gates of Ekron. And many wounded among the Philistines fell on the way of Shaaraim, and as far as Gath, and as far as Ekron.

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53  And the children of Israel returned from chasing after the Philistines, and they spoiled their camp.

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54  And David took the head of the philistine, and brought it to Jerusalem; but he put his armour in his tent.

54  Then David, taking up the head of the Philistine, brought it to Jerusalem. Yet truly, he placed his armor in his own tent.

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55  And when Saul saw David go forth against the Philistine, he said unto Abner, the captain of the host: 'Abner, whose son is this youth?' And Abner said: 'As thy soul liveth, O king, I cannot tell.'

55  Now at the time that Saul had seen David going out against the Philistines, he said to Abner, the leader of the military, “From what stock is this youth descended, Abner?” And Abner said, “As your soul lives, O king, I do not know.”

56  And the king said: 'Inquire thou whose son the stripling is.'

56  And the king said, “You shall inquire as to whose son this boy may be.”

57  And as David returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, Abner took him, and brought him before Saul with the head of the Philistine in his hand.

57  And when David had returned, after the Philistine had been struck down, Abner took him, and brought him before Saul, having the head of the Philistine in his hand.

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58  And Saul said to him: 'Whose son art thou, thou young man?' And David answered: 'I am the son of thy servant Jesse the Beth-lehemite.'